The condemnation of Louis XVI

The condemnation of Louis XVI

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Title: Roll calls of the deputies to the Convention (p. 1).

Creation date : 1793

Date shown: January 16, 1793

Dimensions: Height 35.5 - Width 23

Technique and other indications: manuscript; colored pencil; ink; black ink. Permanent meeting of January 16-17, 1793 "Nominal calls" of the deputies to the Convention to pronounce on the sentence of conviction of Louis XVI. First page, relating to the deputies of Paris and to a part of the deputies of Pas-de-Calais.

Storage location: Historic Center of the National Archives website

Contact copyright: © Historic Center of the National Archives - Photo workshop website

Picture reference: AE / II / 1336 bis

Roll calls of the deputies to the Convention (p. 1).

© Historic Center of the National Archives - Photography workshop

Publication date: April 2008

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The condemnation of Louis XVI

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Historical context

The trial of Louis XVI

Following the insurrection of August 10, 1792, the king, whose power was suspended, was imprisoned with his family in the Temple prison. These matters are put to a roll vote, which therefore binds each Member personally.

Image Analysis

The votes of the deputies of Paris on the sentence

On a page of a notebook of 17 handwritten leaves, 35 by 24 cm, appears part of the list of deputies called to pronounce on January 16 and 17, 1793 on the sentence of conviction of Louis XVI. The deputies are classified by departments. This sheet shows the deputies from Paris and part of the deputies from Pas-de-Calais. Opposite each name is the content of the MP's vote. The numbers in the left column probably allowed the count of the deputies who voted death.

On the last page is the following inscription: “The Assembly has received the declaration made to it by all of its members who have not voted for the death penalty or who have attached a condition to it, that they had determined to vote as legislators and not as judges, and they had only intended to take a general security measure. "

Interpretation

Who votes for the death of the king?

One notices, among the deputies of Paris, many men in sight among the mountaineers: the brothers Robespierre, Danton, Collot d´Herbois, Billaud-Varenne, Camille Desmoulins, Marat, David. All vote death, some adding for more security “within 24 hours”. The name of Louis-Philippe Egalité attracts attention. He is the Duke of Orleans, great-grandson of the regent and therefore cousin of King Louis XVI. A liberal well before the Revolution, he renounced all privileges and obtained from the Paris Commune "a family name to be recognized as well as his children". It was therefore under the name of Philippe Egalité that he was elected to the Convention, where he sat on the far left. As we can see, he votes for the death of the king. This will not prevent him from being arrested in November of the same year (he was the closest heir to the throne in France) and from being guillotined on the very day of his trial. Among the deputies of Pas-de-Calais is Lazare Carnot, specialist in military questions, rather moderate mountain dweller, who commented on his vote by declaring that this "duty" weighed on him.

Along with death sentences, there are other, more moderate choices: detention until peace, followed by banishment. These votes emanate, among others, from the Girondins deputies, who made it clear, in the declaration at the end of the document, that they rejected the role of judges of the person of the king, and that their vote was that of legislators concerned about security.

  • fall of royalty
  • Convention
  • Orleans (of)
  • deputies
  • Louis XVI
  • king's trial
  • Orleans (d ') Louis-Philipe (Philippe-Egalité)

Bibliography

Marc BOULOISEAU The Jacobin Republic Paris, Seuil, 1989 François FURET The revolution , t. 1, From Turgot to Jules Ferry: 1770-1880 Paris, 1988, reed., Coll. "Pluriel", 1992. Mona OZOUF "Trial of the king" in François FURET, Mona OZOUF, Critical Dictionary of the French Revolution Events, Paris, 1988.Alexis PHILOMENKO The death of Louis XVI Paris, Bartillat, 2000.Eric ROHMERFilmography: The Englishwoman and the Duke 2001.

To cite this article

Marianne CAYATTE, "The condemnation of Louis XVI"


Video: Louis XVI