The rise of restaurants

The rise of restaurants

  • The Sirène restaurant in Asnières.

    VAN GOGH Vincent (1853 - 1890)

  • The staff of the Arrigoni restaurant, 23, passage des Panoramas, 2e borough.

    VIZZAVONA François Antoine (1876 - 1961)

  • Ady often had lunch here, the Chartier of the Latin Quarter which has kept its 1900 character.

    KERTESZ André (1894 - 1985)

  • Front: restaurant at Mère Catherine.

    BOVIS Marcel (1904 - 1997)

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Title: The Sirène restaurant in Asnières.

Author : VAN GOGH Vincent (1853 - 1890)

Creation date : 1887

Date shown:

Dimensions: Height 54 - Width 65

Technique and other indications: Oil on canvas

Storage location: Orsay Museum website

Contact copyright: © Musée d'Orsay, Dist Rmn / Patrice Schmidtsite web

Picture reference: 10-527314 / Rf 2325

The Sirène restaurant in Asnières.

© Musée d'Orsay, Dist Rmn / Patrice Schmidt

The staff of the Arrigoni restaurant, 23, passage des Panoramas, 2e borough.

© Photo RMN-Grand Palais - F. Vizzavona

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Title: Ady often had lunch here, the Chartier of the Latin Quarter which has kept its 1900 character.

Author : KERTESZ André (1894 - 1985)

Creation date : 1934

Date shown:

Dimensions: Height 12 - Width 9

Technique and other indications: Monochrome negative, flexible negative Series "Az igazi Ady" (The real Ady), 1934

Storage location: Architecture and heritage multimedia library website

Contact copyright: © Ministry of Culture / Médiathèque du Patrimoine, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais - © RMN-Grand Palais - Copyright management

Picture reference: 10-531869 / 72L001402

Ady often had lunch here, the Chartier of the Latin Quarter which has kept its 1900 character.

© Ministry of Culture / Médiathèque du Patrimoine, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais - RMN-Grand Palais - Copyright management

To close

Title: Front: restaurant at Mère Catherine.

Author : BOVIS Marcel (1904 - 1997)

Creation date : 1946

Date shown:

Dimensions: Height 6 - Width 6

Technique and other indications: Monochrome negative, flexible negative Series title: Shops and signs. Shooting address: place du Tertre

Storage location: Architecture and heritage multimedia library website

Contact copyright: © Ministry of Culture / Médiathèque du Patrimoine, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais - © RMN-Grand Palais - Copyright management

Picture reference: 08-506220 / 73L05910

Front: restaurant at Mère Catherine.

© Ministry of Culture / Médiathèque du Patrimoine, Dist. RMN-Grand Palais - RMN-Grand Palais - Copyright management

Publication date: November 2011

Historical context

The expansion of restaurants in the XIXe century

If the catering businesses are attested at all times and in all places, it is however towards the end of the XVIIIe century that the first modern restaurant in France appears, after this country has already acquired a solid reputation for gastronomy abroad. The opening near the Louvre in 1765 of a restaurant where a man named Boulanger served meat-based consummés and other refined dishes usually prepared by caterers on small tables paved the way for the emergence of a new profession that came compete with the monopoly of the catering corporation.
Quickly, this formula met with great success, and Paris soon had a large number of renowned brands on the eve of the Revolution. In fact, the number of restaurateurs in Paris is steadily increasing - around 100 before the Revolution, nearly 3,000 under the Restoration - and restaurants are establishing themselves in France as the places par excellence for well-eating outside of France. domestic space.

Image Analysis

Restaurants, a place of gastronomy and sociability

The subject of restaurants has been widely addressed by artists, whether through painting or through other media such as photography. They were particularly keen on depicting its exterior, such as Vincent Van Gogh who immortalized in 1887 the restaurant de la Sirène in Asnières-sur-Seine, a village on the outskirts of Paris where he used to go on excursions. The palette, dominated by a varied range of whites and light tones, enhanced in places with small lively touches, and the hatched line of the brush bring out the dapper and almost rustic side of the restaurant, with its rosebushes and the vegetation that climbs its facade. . On the sidewalk, people sit chatting, while others stroll on the first-floor terrace, a meeting place for society in search of convivial celebrations.

This sociability characteristic of restaurants is also highlighted in a photograph taken in 1946 by Marcel Bovis, a photographer who was interested in the heritage of the capital. This photograph shows the restaurant à la Mère Catherine, an old Parisian house founded on Place du Tertre by a certain Catherine Lemoine in 1793 as indicated by the inscription on the facade, at a time when restaurants were booming. According to legend, Danton would have frequented this place. The property announces that its guests will find a garden and groves there, and that it also sells tobacco. As is the rule for this type of food business, the dishes and the daily menu are displayed in the storefront. A woman has taken a seat at one of the small sidewalk bistro tables, while a couple is chatting on the doorstep with a man who appears to be the restaurant owner.

Other photographers have left testimonies of a sociological nature on the restaurants. So it is with the cliché that François Antoine Vizzavona devoted around 1910-1920 to the restaurant Arrigoni, located passage des Panoramas, in Paris, in the 2e borough. This "panoramic" view is a good measure of the standing displayed by this Italian establishment: all those who work there pose in front of the objective according to a scrupulous hierarchy, the owners of the restaurant coming in first, followed by the group of waiters then by the one. cooks, easily recognizable at the end of the line by their white hats and outfits. Alongside these luxury restaurants, there were also a large number of popular establishments in Paris which served low-cost meals, such as the “Bouillons” created in 1860 and beyond by the Duval father and son, where we offered beef broth for the workers. The formula which met with immense success was taken up by the Chartier brothers at the end of the 19th century.e century, which opened several bouillons in Paris, including the "Chartier" of the Latin Quarter (now Bouillon Racine) in 1906. The Hungarian-born photographer André Kertész used to work in this restaurant which has retained its sumptuous original Art Nouveau decor , as evidenced by a photograph of this artist taken in 1934 under the title "Ady often lunched here". Sitting among mirrors and woodwork, a man seen from behind studies the daily menu. The wooden chairs and tables, the gingham tablecloths and the parquet floor are part of the traditional decor of establishments in this category.

Interpretation

A typically French institution

Each in its own way, these works reflect the remarkable development of restaurants whose storefronts and signs became a staple of the urban landscape throughout the 19th century.e and XXe century, especially in Paris. From the middle of the XIXe century, Parisian restaurants have acquired such a reputation that people flock to them from everywhere, including from abroad, to taste good food. The phenomenon, which will continue to amplify, also concerns the province: the great chefs who officiate there attract foodies, and Lyon does the same with its "bouchons" where popular regional specialties are served.

If French gastronomy is in the spotlight in most restaurants, whether they are frequented by an aristocratic society fond of luxury and good food or by a more popular clientele, and if the word "restaurant" is exported everywhere in Europe and then in the rest of the world, Paris nonetheless opened its doors to foreign restaurants very early on. Far from harming the creativity of French cuisine, the cosmopolitanism of the capital has enabled chefs to constantly renew their inspiration in contact with foreign influences, while relying on local products, the symbol par excellence of gastronomy in the French.

  • cooked
  • gastronomy
  • restaurant

Bibliography

Jean-Louis FLANDRIN and Massimo MONTANARI (eds.), History of food, Paris, Fayard, 1996. Jean-Robert PITTE, French gastronomy. History and geography of a passion, Paris, Fayard, 1991.

To cite this article

Charlotte DENOËL, "The rise of restaurants"


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