4:30PM THE PRESIDENT departs West Palm Beach, Florida en route to Melbourne, Florida
Palm Beach International Airport
5:10PM THE PRESIDENT arrives in Melbourne, Florida
Orlando Melbourne International Airport
5:20PM THE PRESIDENT participates in the Make America Great Again Rally
Orlando Melbourne International Airport
6:15PM THE PRESIDENT concludes participation in the Make America Great Again Rally
Orlando Melbourne International Airport
6:35PM THE PRESIDENT departs Melbourne, Florida en route to West Palm Beach, Florida
Orlando Melbourne International Airport
7:15PM THE PRESIDENT arrives in West Palm Beach, Florida
Palm Beach International Airport
Historical Events on February 20
- Swiss & German mercenaries desert Francois I's army King Edward VI of England crowned following the death of his father Henry VIII Gerard Reynst appointed Governor-General of Dutch East Indies Trial against Johan van Oldenbarnevelt begins in The Hague for alleged crimes against the federal government Defeat of Dutch fleet under Adm Van Tromp by Admiral Blake off Portsmouth 1st recorded wine auction held in London Johan Willem Friso becomes Viceroy of Groningen, Netherlands
1724 George Frideric Handel's opera "Giulio Cesare in Egitto" premieres at the King's Theatre in Haymarket, London
- 10 sleeping Indians scalped by whites in New Hampshire for £100 a scalp bounty Estates of Holland ratifies Treaty of Vienna French minister of Finance, Chauvelin, resigns Jacobite troops occupy Fort Augustus, Scotland 1st American chartered fire insurance company opens in Pennsylvania US postal service created, postage 6-12 cents depending on distance
Event of Interest
1798 Louis Alexandre Berthier removes Pope Pius VI from power and takes him prisoner
1810 Andreas Hofer, Tyrolean patriot and leader of rebellion against Napoleon's forces, executed.
1816 Gioachino Rossini's opera "Barber of Seville" premieres in Rome
- English Captain James Weddell reaches 74°15' S, 1520 km from South Pole Polish revolutionaries defeat Russians in battle of Growchow Concepcion, Chile, destroyed by earthquake 5,000 die Congress prohibits dueling in District of Columbia British occupy Sikh citadel of Lahore The steam packet-ship John Rutledge, en route from Liverpool to New York, hits an iceberg and sinks with the loss of 120 passengers and 19 crew only one survivor (Thomas Nye of New Bedford) Navy of the Confederate States (CSN) forms (US Civil War) Civil War battle of Olustee, Florida Massachusetts Institute of Technology forms 1st US collegiate architectural school Tennessee Governor W C Brownlow declares martial law in Ku Klux Klan crisis Hydraulic electric elevator patented by Cyrus Baldwin Luther Crowell patents a machine that manufactures paper bags New York's Metropolitan Museum of Art opens Silas Noble & JP Cooley patents toothpick manufacturing machine University of California gets its first Medical School (UC/San Francisco)
1917 Jerome Kern, Guy Bolton & P.G. Wodehouse's musical "Oh, Boy!" premieres in New York
1919 French Prime Minister Georges Clémenceau injured during assassination attempt
- Foundation NHL club Toronto Arenas are permitted to cease operations due to financial difficulties later become Toronto St. Patricks and then Maple Leafs Riza Khan Pahlevi seizes control of Iran
Event of Interest
1922 Marc Connelly & George Kaufman's "To the Ladies" premieres in NYC
Event of Interest
1932 Pierre Laval's first French government falls
- Japanese troops occupy Tunhua China Curom, Curacaose Broadcast System starts: Princess Juliana's speech US House of Representatives completes congressional action to repeal Prohibition Sidney Howard's "Alien Corn" premieres in NYC Virgil Thomson and Gertrude Stein's opera "Four Saints in Three Acts" opens on Broadway at the 44th Street Theatre in New York City Dane Caroline Mikkelson is 1st woman to land on Antarctica 1st automobile/airplane combination tested, Santa Monica, California
Event of Interest
1938 UK Foreign Secretary Anthony Eden resigns stating Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain has appeased Nazi Germany
Event of Interest
1938 Adolf Hitler announces his support for Japan during the Sino-Japanese War
- The American pro-Nazi organization German American Bund hold a rally at Madison Square Garden and 20,000 attend Larry Clinton & his Orchestra record "Limehouse Blues" 1st transport of Jews to concentration camps leave Plotsk Poland Nazi Germany orders Polish Jews barred from using public transportation Romania breaks relations with Netherlands
Battle of Eniwetok
1944 Battle of Eniwetok: US forces take Enewetak Atoll at the cost of 37 Americans killed or missing and 94 wounded, Japanese losses were 800 dead and 23 prisoners
- World War II: The "Big Week" began with American bomber raids on German aircraft manufacturing centers Chemical mixing error causes explosion that destroys 42 blocks in LA
Event of Interest
1947 Earl Mountbatten of Burma appointed as last viceroy of India to oversee the move to independence
- State of Prussia ceases to exist. Czechoslovakia's non-communist minister resigns 1st International Pancake Race held (Liberal Ks) Dylan Thomas arrives in NYC for his 1st US poetry reading tour WOL-AM in Washington, D.C. swaps calls with WWDC
1952 "African Queen" film directed by John Huston, starring Humphrey Bogart and Katharine Hepburn is released in the US
- Emmett Ashford is certified to be first black umpire in organised baseball has to wait until 1966 for MLB debut Britain's Jeannette Altwegg wins the Olympic women’s figure skating gold medal at the Olso Winter Games ahead of American Tenley Albright, who goes on to win in Cortina d'Ampezzo (1956) American alpine skier Andrea Mead-Lawrence is only multi-gold medallist at the Oslo Winter Olympics when she wins the slalom, after taking out the inaugural giant slalom August A Busch buys the St Louis Cards for $3.75 million
Event of Interest
1958 American future Hall of Fame jockey Eddie Arcaro rides his 4,000th winner on Riding Ban in the 8th race at Santa Anita
- LA Coliseum approves 2-year pact allowing LA Dodgers to use facility whilst Dodger Stadium is completed in time for the 1962 MLB season
Event of Interest
1959 Jimi Hendrix (16), rock and roll guitarist, plays his first gig in the Temple De Hirsch synagogue basement, Seattle. He is fired from the band after the 1st set due to "wild" playing
Event of Interest
1959 The Avro Arrow program to design and manufacture supersonic jet fighters in Canada is cancelled by the Diefenbaker government amid much political debate.
- Soviet females sweep the 10k cross country event at Squaw Valley first medal sweep for the Soviets at a Winter Olympics Maria Gusakova wins from Lyubov Kozyreva and Radya Yeroshina
John Glenn Orbits Earth
1962 John Glenn becomes the 1st American to orbit the Earth, aboard Friendship 7
John Glenn, the first American to orbit the Earth, getting into his spacecraft Friendship 7 in 1962
- Australian cricket greats Neil Harvey and Alan Davidson play final Test match in drawn 5th Test vs England at the Sydney Cricket Ground
1963 Future Baseball Hall of Fame outfielder Willie Mays becomes the highest-paid player in MLB, signing a record $100,000 contract with the San Francisco Giants
- Beatles record "That Means A Lot" unhappy with the results, it was given to P.J. Proby to record, the Beatles version was not released until 1996 on Anthology 2 Ranger 8 makes hard landing on the Moon, returns photos, other data Turkish government of Uerguplu forms Author Valery Tarsis banished in USSR State troopers used tear gas to stop demonstration at Alcorn A & M
Event of Interest
1971 Bruin Phil Esposito is NHL's quickest to score 50 goals in a season
- National Emergency Center erroneously orders US radio & TV stations to go off the air. Mistake wasn't resolved for 30 minutes
Event of Interest
1971 "Mr. Hockey," Gordie Howe scores a goal and adds 3 assists, including his 1,800th career NHL point, in 6-5 Red Wings' win over Buffalo in Detroit Howe's 1,670th game
Event of Interest
1972 Ard Schenk wins world championship for speed skating
- Sicco Mansholt becomes chairman of European Committee 14th Daytona 500: A.J. Foyt dominates the race, winning by almost 2 laps over his closest competitor Charlie Glotzbach 10th time Islanders shut-out-4-0 vs Penguins Gordie Howe comes out of retirement for $1M from Houston Aeros, WHA Leonard Baichan scores 105* on Test Cricket debut, v Pakistan Lahore USSR performs nuclear test at Eastern Kazakh/Semipalitinsk USSR A feud begins between the official Irish Republican Army and the Irish National Liberation Army the two groups assassinate a number of each other's volunteers until the feud ends in June 1975
Boxing Title Fight
1976 Muhammad Ali's bout against Belgian boxer Jean Pierre Coopman in San Juan, Puerto Rico is often regarded as a glorified sparring session Ali wins by 5th round KO
- The Southeast Asia Treaty Organization disbands. "My Fair Lady" closes at St James Theater NYC after 384 performances 19th Daytona 500: Cale Yarborough wins his 2nd Great American Race Janet Guthrie first female NASCAR Cup Series driver finishes 12th
Film and TV Awards
1978 4th People's Choice Awards: John Wayne & Barbra Streisand win (Motion Picture) and James Garner & Mary Tyler Moore win (TV)
- Bob Backland beats "Superstar" Billy Graham in NY, to become WWF wrestling champion Egypt announces it is pulling its diplomats out of Cyprus "Comin' Uptown" opens at Winter Garden Theater NYC for 45 performances 11 'loyalists' known as the "Shankill Butchers" are sentenced to life in prison for 19 murders the gang was named for its late-night kidnapping, torture and murder (by throat slashing) of random Catholic civilians in Belfast 29th Berlin International Film Festival: "David" wins the Golden Bear
Event of Interest
1986 LA Dodger Orel Hershiser is 1st to win a $1M salary by arbitration
Event of Interest
1986 Mike Tyson sexually harasses a woman in Albany, New York
- Bomb blamed on Unabomber explodes by a computer store in Salt Lake City David Hartman quits ABC's "Good Morning America" after 11 years 37th Berlin International Film Festival: "The Theme" wins the Golden Bear 500 die in heavy rains in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil Andre Hoffmann skates world record 1500m (1:52.06) Brian Boitano wins Olympic gold medal in figure skating Cornelia Oschkenat hurdles indoor world record 50m (6.58 sec) Kelly Hrudy's 5th Islander shut-out win-Hartford 3-0
Event of Interest
1988 Peter Kalikow purchases NY Post from Rupert Murdoch for $37.6 million
- Rob Druppers runs world record indoor 1000m (2:16.2) Stefka Kostadinova of Bulgaria sets high jumps indoor world record (2.06 m) Members of 1949 Oklahoma football team cancel an April reunion because of the deplorable conduct of Oklahoma players An IRA bomb destroys a section of a British Army barracks in Ternhill, England "Taking Steps" opens at Circle in Sq Theater NYC for 78 performances
1991 33rd Grammy Awards: Another Day in Paradise, Mariah Carey
Event of Interest
1991 A gigantic statue of Albania's long-time dictator, Enver Hoxha, is brought down in the Albanian capital, Tirana, by mobs of angry protesters
- "Private Lives" opens at Broadhurst Theater NYC for 37 performances Orthodox patriarch Shenouda III visits Netherlands
Event of Interest
1992 Ross Perot says he'll run for President on "Larry King Live"
- Florida Marlins open their 1st spring training camp NY Islanders retire Billy Smith's number 31 3 Afghans take 70 Pakistani children hostage Johann Olav Koss skates world record 10 km (13:30.55)
Event of Interest
1994 Pope John Paul II demands juristic discrimination of homosexuals
- 36th Daytona 500: Sterling Marlin wins his first NASCAR race Neil Bonnett and Rodney Orr killed in separate practice incidents "Stanley" opens at Circle in Sq Theater NYC
1997 San Francisco Giants Barry Bonds signs record $22.9M 2 year contract
Event of Interest
1998 UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan lands in Baghdad, for peace negotiations
1998 Vancouver Canucks' right wing Pavel Bure scores 5 goals for Russia in a 7-4 semi-final win over Finland at the Nagano Winter Olympics
- Toronto Maple Leafs play their first NHL home game at Air Canada Centre Steve Thomas scores overtime winner in a 3-2 victory over the Montreal Canadiens 42nd Daytona 500: Polesitter Dale Jarrett wins his 3rd Great American Race ahead of Jeff Gordon and Bill Elliott The United States Supreme Court declines to consider an appeal by five major oil companies against Unocal's patent on production of cleaner "reformulated" gasoline sold in California In Reqa Al-Gharbiya, Egypt, a fire on a train injures over 65 and kills at least 370. During a Great White concert in West Warwick, Rhode Island, a pyrotechnics display sets the club ablaze, killing 100 and injuring over 300 others. Spain becomes the first country to vote in a referendum on ratification of the proposed Constitution of the European Union, passing it by a substantial margin, but on a low turnout. 54th NBA All-Star Game, Pepsi Center, Denver, CO: East beats West, 125-115 MVP: Allen Iverson, Philadelphia 76ers, G 47th Daytona 500: Jeff Gordon able to hold off Kurt Busch and Dale Earnhardt Jr over 3 extra laps to win his third Daytona 500 On the Portuguese Atlantic island of Madeira heavy rain causes floods and mudslides, leaving at least 32 deaths in the worst disaster on the history of the archipelago.
NBA All-Star Game
2011 60th NBA All-Star Game, Staples Center, Los Angeles, CA: West beats East, 148-143 MVP: Kobe Bryant, LA Lakers, F
- 53rd Daytona 500: 20 year old Trevor Bayne, driving for Wood Brothers Racing, wins to become the youngest Daytona 500 winner South Korea angers North Korea as it proceeds with live fire drills in disputed Korean sea borders Scientists successfully regenerate the flowering plant, Silene stenophylla from a 31,800 year old piece of fruit, greatly surpassing the previous record of 2,000 years Estonia becomes the first country to establish a national system of fast chargers for electric cars Kepler-37b, the smallest known exoplanet, is discovered France sweeps the medals in the men's ski cross at the Sochi Winter Olympics Jean-Frédéric Chapuis takes the gold ahead of teammates Arnaud Bovolenta and Jonathan Midol Marie-Philip Poulin scores in overtime to lead Canada to a 3-2 win over the US and 4th consecutive Olympic women's ice hockey gold medal at the Sochi Winter Games Canada beats Sweden, 6-3 in final to become first women's curling team to go through the Olympics undefeated as they win Sochi gold medal first Manitoba based team to win Olympic gold Adelina Sotnikova convincingly wins the women's singles figure skating gold medal at the Sochi Winter Olympics for Russia's first title in the ladies event After winning the individual large hill 10k Nordic combined title Jørgen Graabak of Norway wins his 2nd gold medal of the Sochi Winter Olympics in the team large hill / 4 x 5 km relay
Event of Interest
2015 Kristen Stewart is the first American actress to win a French César Award as Best Supporting Actress for "Clouds of Sils Maria"
Time of day
The international standard notation for the time of day is
where hh is the number of complete hours that have passed since midnight (00-24), mm is the number of complete minutes that have passed since the start of the hour (00-59), and ss is the number of complete seconds since the start of the minute (00-60). If the hour value is 24, then the minute and second values must be zero.
Note: The value 60 for ss might sometimes be needed during an inserted leap second in an atomic time scale like Coordinated Universal Time (UTC). A single leap second 23:59:60 is inserted into the UTC time scale every few years as announced by the International Earth Rotation Service in Paris, to keep UTC from wandering away more than 0.9 s from the less constant astronomical time scale UT1, which is defined by the actual rotation of the earth. In practice you are not very likely to see a clock showing 23:59:60. Most synchronized clocks resynchronize again to UTC some time after a leap second has happened, or they temporarily slow down near the time of a leap seconds, to avoid any disruption that an out-of-range timestamp might otherwise cause.
which represents the time one second before midnight.
As with the date notation, the separating colons can also be omitted as in
and the precision can be reduced by omitting the seconds or both the seconds and minutes as in
23:59, 2359, or 23
It is also possible to add fractions of a second after a decimal dot or comma, for instance the time 5.8 ms before midnight can be written as
23:59:59.9942 or 235959.9942
As every day both starts and ends with midnight, the two notations 00:00 and 24:00 are available to distinguish the two midnights that can be associated with one date. This means that the following two notations refer to exactly the same point in time:
1995-02-04 24:00 = 1995-02-05 00:00
In case an unambiguous representation of time is required, 00:00 is usually the preferred notation for midnight and not 24:00. Digital clocks display 00:00 and not 24:00.
ISO 8601 does not specify, whether its notations specify a point in time or a time period. This means for example that ISO 8601 does not define whether 09:00 refers to the exact end of the ninth hour of the day or the period from 09:00 to 09:01 or anything else. The users of the standard must somehow agree on the exact interpretation of the time notation if this should be of any concern.
If a date and a time are displayed on the same line, then always write the date in front of the time. If a date and a time value are stored together in a single data field, then ISO 8601 suggests that they should be separated by a latin capital letter T, as in 19951231T235959.
A remark for readers from the U.S.:
- It is longer than the normal 24h notation.
- It takes somewhat more time for humans to compare two times in 12h notation.
- It is not clear, how 00:00, 12:00 and 24:00 are represented. Even encyclopedias and style manuals contain contradicting descriptions and a common quick fix seems to be to avoid “12:00 a.m./p.m.” altogether and write “noon”, “midnight”, or “12:01 a.m./p.m.” instead, although the word “midnight” still does not distinguish between 00:00 and 24:00 (midnight at the start or end of a given day).
- It makes people often believe that the next day starts at the overflow from “12:59 a.m.” to “1:00 a.m.”, which is a common problem not only when people try to program the timer of VCRs shortly after midnight.
- It is not easily comparable with a string compare operation.
- It is not immediately clear for the unaware, whether the time between “12:00 a.m./p.m.” and “1:00 a.m./p.m.” starts at 00:00 or at 12:00, i.e. the English 12h notation is more difficult to understand.
A remark for readers from German speaking countries:
The German standard DIN 5008, which specifies typographical rules for German texts written on typewriters, was updated in 1996-05. The old German numeric date notations DD.MM.YYYY and DD.MM.YY have been replaced by the ISO date notations YYYY-MM-DD and YY-MM-DD. Similarly, the old German time notations hh.mm and hh.mm.ss have been replaced by the ISO notations hh:mm and hh:mm:ss. Those new notations are now also mentioned in the latest edition of the Duden . The German alphanumeric date notation continues to be for example “3. August 1994” or “3. Aug. 1994”. The corresponding Austrian standard has already used the ISO 8601 date and time notations before.
ISO 8601 has been adopted as European Standard EN 28601 and is therefore now a valid standard in all EU countries and all conflicting national standards have been changed accordingly.
Florida (FL) Lottery - Search Past Winning Numbers & Results
The Florida Lottery was created in 1986 through a constitutional amendment voters enacted by a two-to-one margin. Florida voters authorized a lottery that would use all its proceeds to enhance public education in Florida.
Governor Bob Martinez and the Florida Legislature established just such an education lottery and dedicated it to “maximize revenues to education to allow the people of Florida to benefit from significant additional monies while providing the best lottery games available.”
Over the 16- year history of the Florida Lottery, both goals have been accomplished.
Driven by the legislative mandate for tickets to go on sale by January 18, 1988, the Lottery's "start-up" was a year dynamic activity: Rebecca Paul was appointed as the Lottery's first permanent Secretary employees were hired vendors for On-line and Scratch-Off games were contracted retailers were recruited, vetted and trained tickets dispensers and lottery terminals were installed at retailers throughout the state.
All the “start-up” preparations culminated on January 12, 1988, when the Florida Lottery began sales of its very first ticket -"six days" In its first week, the game exceeded $95 million in sales, and the Florida Lottery set a lottery industry record. MILLIONAIRE and the other Scratch-Off games that quickly followed were so successful that - in just 17 days - the Lottery was able to repay the original startup money borrowed from the state's General Revenue Fund, $15.5 million plus interest.
History of Change and Tradition on Inauguration Day
Inauguration has been a ceremony steeped in tradition.
Fast Facts About Inauguration
-- Presidential inaugurations have been steeped in tradition and ceremony since the nation’s first president, George Washington, took the oath of the office. But from the parade processions to the swearing-in ceremony, those traditions have changed over time.
Here are a few lesser-known facts about the history of presidential inaugurations:
Inauguration Day wasn’t always on Jan. 20
George Washington, then a 57-year-old general, was sworn-in on a clear and cool day from the balcony of the Federal Hall in New York on April 30, 1789.
But it wasn't until his second inauguration as president that the traditions began to take root. Washington's second inauguration was held on March 04, 1793 and incoming presidents had their ceremonies on the spring date for many years -- unless it fell on a Sunday.
James Monroe was the first president to deal with such a situation. After consulting with the Supreme Court justices, Monroe decided to hold his inaugural ceremony on Monday, March 05, 1821.
But after a change made to the 20th Amendment of the Constitution, Franklin D. Roosevelt was the first president to have his inauguration ceremony on Jan. 20 in 1937.
Most of the swearing-in ceremony is not required, it’s just tradition
The only Constitutional requirement for the inauguration ceremonies is that the president takes his oath of office.
The Bible isn’t a requirement for the Oath of Office, nor is having a Chief Justice administer the oath.
Theodore Roosevelt didn’t use a Bible for his swearing-in on Sept. 14, 1901. John Quincy Adams used a books of law for his inauguration.
It also doesn’t matter who holds the Bible. In starting a tradition that has occurred at every inauguration since, Lady Bird Johnson was the first incoming-first lady to hold the Bible for her husband while he took the oath of office.
On March 4, 1797, John Adams became the first president to receive the oath of office from a Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court -- Chief Justice Oliver Ellsworth.
The Chancellor of New York, Robert Livingston, and Associate Justice, William Cushing, had the honor of administering the oath of office at George Washington’s first and second inaugurations, respectively. Several other kinds of officials, who were not Supreme Court justices, have also administered the oath of office.
Judge Sarah Hughes swore in Lyndon Johnson, making her the first woman to administer the oath.
The Inaugural speech
William Henry Harrison spoke for about 1 hour, 45 minutes on March 4, 1841. His speech was the longest since -- 8,445 words.
George Washington delivered the shortest speech -- only 135 words at his second inauguration on March 4, 1793.
Yes, there have been hiccups
At the presidential inauguration of Herbert Hoover in 1929, first lady Grace Coolidge and incoming first lady Lou Henry Hoover delayed the ceremony for about half an hour. The two were without escorts and got lost in the confusing hallways of the U.S. Capitol on their way to the west front where the ceremony would start.
During John F. Kennedy’s inauguration, the lectern caught fire during Cardinal Richard Cushing’s inaugural invocation. Secret Service rushed to the front and put out the fire caused by the electric motor that’s used to adjust the lectern’s height.
The first organized parade was for James Madison in 1809, but before that there were presidential processions.
Local militias accompanied George Washington in his trip from Mount Vernon in Virginia to New York City for his first inauguration ceremony in 1789.
The only parade known to have been canceled because of the weather was Ronald Reagan's second in 1985. It was the coldest Inauguration Day to date. The noon temperature was 7 degrees Fahrenheit, but the wind chill temperatures were in the negatives. The freezing temperatures made proceeding with the parade dangerous.
Even when there was a blizzard for William Taft’s inauguration in 1901, the parade was not canceled. Workers had to clear snow from the parade route.
The largest parade -- and the longest -- was held for Dwight D. Eisenhower's first Inauguration in 1953. The parade featured 73 bands, 59 floats, horses, elephants and civilian and military vehicles in a procession lasted 4 hours and 32 minutes.
The first Inaugural ball was for James Madison’s inauguration on March 4, 1809. It was held at Long's Hotel in Washington D.C. Tickets cost $4 and 40 were sold.
President Bill Clinton had a record 14 inaugural balls held in celebration of his second inauguration in 1997.
Inauguration ceremonies are typically happy celebrations, but there have been exceptions.
Two months before his inauguration, Franklin Pierce and his wife lost their 11-year-old son in a train accident. Because they were still in mourning, Pierce canceled his inaugural ball.
Four presidents were assassinated and each of their vice presidents had to take the oath of office shortly after.
The day after Abraham Lincoln was killed, on April 15, 1865, Andrew Johnson took the oath of office.
James Garfield was shot and later died on Sept. 19, 1881 and Chester Arthur was sworn in the next day.
In 1901, McKinley had struggled for a week to stay alive after suffering a gunshot to the stomach. Theodore Roosevelt rushed to be in Buffalo, New York only to find President William McKinley dead and was sworn-in as president on Sept. 14, 1901.
On Nov. 22, 1963, Lyndon Johnson took the oath of office aboard Air Force One after the death of John F. Kennedy.
Four other vice presidents were sworn-in after the sitting president died from illness. And one vice president, Gerald Ford, became Commander-in-Chief after President Richard Nixon resigned.
January 2017 Calendar
View or download the 2017 calendar.
Go to 2017 Calendar.
|Date||Sunrise||Sunset||Length of day|
|January 1, 2017||7:20||16:39||9h 19m|
|January 2, 2017||7:20||16:40||9h 20m|
|January 3, 2017||7:20||16:41||9h 21m|
|January 4, 2017||7:20||16:42||9h 22m|
|January 5, 2017||7:20||16:43||9h 23m|
|January 6, 2017||7:20||16:44||9h 24m|
|January 7, 2017||7:20||16:45||9h 25m|
|January 8, 2017||7:20||16:46||9h 26m|
|January 9, 2017||7:20||16:47||9h 27m|
|January 10, 2017||7:20||16:48||9h 28m|
|January 11, 2017||7:20||16:49||9h 29m|
|January 12, 2017||7:19||16:50||9h 31m|
|January 13, 2017||7:19||16:51||9h 32m|
|January 14, 2017||7:19||16:52||9h 33m|
|January 15, 2017||7:18||16:53||9h 35m|
|January 16, 2017||7:18||16:54||9h 36m|
|January 17, 2017||7:17||16:55||9h 38m|
|January 18, 2017||7:17||16:57||9h 40m|
|January 19, 2017||7:16||16:58||9h 42m|
|January 20, 2017||7:16||16:59||9h 43m|
|January 21, 2017||7:15||17:00||9h 45m|
|January 22, 2017||7:15||17:01||9h 46m|
|January 23, 2017||7:14||17:03||9h 49m|
|January 24, 2017||7:13||17:04||9h 51m|
|January 25, 2017||7:12||17:05||9h 53m|
|January 26, 2017||7:12||17:06||9h 54m|
|January 27, 2017||7:11||17:07||9h 56m|
|January 28, 2017||7:10||17:09||9h 59m|
|January 29, 2017||7:09||17:10||10h 1m|
|January 30, 2017||7:08||17:11||10h 3m|
|January 31, 2017||7:07||17:12||10h 5m|
The sunrise and sunset are calculated from New York. All the times in the January 2017 calendar may differ when you eg live east or west in the United States. To see the sunrise and sunset in your region select a city above this list.
By 23 January 2020, China had imposed a national emergency response to restrict travel and impose social distancing measures on its populace in an attempt to inhibit the transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). However, which measures were most effective is uncertain. Tian et al. performed a quantitative analysis of the impact of control measures between 31 December 2019 and 19 February 2020, which encompasses the Lunar New Year period when millions of people traveled across China for family visits. Travel restrictions in and out of Wuhan were too late to prevent the spread of the virus to 262 cities within 28 days. However, the epidemic peaked in Hubei province on 4 February 2020, indicating that measures such as closing citywide public transport and entertainment venues and banning public gatherings combined to avert hundreds of thousands of cases of infection. It is unlikely that this decline happened because the supply of susceptible people was exhausted, so relaxing control measures could lead to a resurgence.
Responding to an outbreak of a novel coronavirus [agent of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)] in December 2019, China banned travel to and from Wuhan city on 23 January 2020 and implemented a national emergency response. We investigated the spread and control of COVID-19 using a data set that included case reports, human movement, and public health interventions. The Wuhan shutdown was associated with the delayed arrival of COVID-19 in other cities by 2.91 days. Cities that implemented control measures preemptively reported fewer cases on average (13.0) in the first week of their outbreaks compared with cities that started control later (20.6). Suspending intracity public transport, closing entertainment venues, and banning public gatherings were associated with reductions in case incidence. The national emergency response appears to have delayed the growth and limited the size of the COVID-19 epidemic in China, averting hundreds of thousands of cases by 19 February (day 50).
On 31 December 2019—less than a month before the 2020 Spring Festival holiday, including the Chinese Lunar New Year—a cluster of pneumonia cases caused by an unknown pathogen was reported in Wuhan, a city of 11 million inhabitants and the largest transport hub in Central China. A novel coronavirus (1, 2) was identified as the etiological agent (3, 4), and human-to-human transmission of the virus [severe acute respiratory syndrome–coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)] has been since confirmed (5, 6). Further spatial spread of this disease was of great concern in view of the upcoming Spring Festival (chunyun), during which there are typically 3 billion travel movements over the 40-day holiday period, which runs from 15 days before the Spring Festival (Chinese Lunar New Year) to 25 days afterward (7, 8).
Because there is currently neither a vaccine nor a specific drug treatment for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), a range of public health (nonpharmaceutical) interventions has been used to control the epidemic. In an attempt to prevent further dispersal of COVID-19 from its source, all transport was prohibited in and out of Wuhan city from 10:00 a.m. on 23 January 2020, followed by the whole of Hubei Province a day later. In terms of the population covered, this appears to be the largest attempted cordon sanitaire in human history.
On 23 January, China also raised its national public health response to the highest state of emergency: Level 1 of 4 levels of severity in the Chinese Emergency System, defined as an “extremely serious incident” (9). As part of the national emergency response, and in addition to the Wuhan city travel ban, suspected and confirmed cases have been isolated, public transport by bus and subway rail suspended, schools and entertainment venues have been closed, public gatherings banned, health checks carried out on migrants (“floating population”), travel prohibited in and out of cities, and information widely disseminated. Despite all of these measures, COVID-19 remains a danger in China. Control measures taken in China potentially hold lessons for other countries around the world.
Although the spatial spread of infectious diseases has been intensively studied (10–15), including explicit studies of the role of human movement (16, 17), the effectiveness of travel restrictions and social distancing measures in preventing the spread of infection is uncertain. For COVID-19, SARS-CoV-2 transmission patterns and the impact of interventions are still poorly understood (6, 7). We therefore carried out a quantitative analysis to investigate the role of travel restrictions and transmission control measures during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China, from 31 December 2019 to 19 February 2020 (Fig. 1). This period encompassed the 40 days of the Spring Festival holiday, 15 days before the Chinese Lunar New Year on 25 January and 25 days afterward. The analysis is based on a geocoded repository of data on COVID-19 epidemiology, human movement, and public health (nonpharmaceutical) interventions. These data include the numbers of COVID-19 cases reported each day in each city of China, information on 4.3 million human movements from Wuhan city, and data on the timing and type of transmission control measures implemented across cities of China.
We first investigated the role of the Wuhan city travel ban, comparing travel in 2020 with that in previous years and exploring how holiday travel links to the dispersal of infection across China. During Spring Festival travel in 2017 and 2018, there was an average outflow of 5.2 million people from Wuhan city during the 15 days before the Chinese Lunar New Year. In 2020, this travel was interrupted by the Wuhan city shutdown, but 4.3 million people traveled out of the city between 11 January and the implementation of the ban on 23 January (Fig. 2A) (7). In 2017 and 2018, travel out of the city during the 25 days after the Chinese Lunar New Year averaged 6.7 million people each year. In 2020, the travel ban prevented almost all of that movement and markedly reduced the number of exportations of COVID-19 from Wuhan (7, 8).
(A) Movement outflows from Wuhan city during Spring Festival travel in 2017, 2018, and 2020. The vertical dotted line is the date of the Spring Festival (Chinese Lunar New Year). (B) The number of recorded movements from Wuhan city to other provinces during the 15 days before the Spring Festival in 2020. The shading from light to dark represents the number of human movements from Wuhan to each province. The areas of circles represent the cumulative number of cases reported by 30 January 2020, 1 week after the Wuhan travel ban on 23 January. (C) Association between the cumulative number of confirmed cases reported before 30 January and the number of movements from Wuhan to other provinces.
The dispersal of COVID-19 from Wuhan was rapid (Fig. 3A). A total of 262 cities reported cases within 28 days. For comparison, the 2009 influenza H1N1 pandemic took 132 days to reach the same number of cities in China (Supplementary materials, materials and methods). The number of cities providing first reports of COVID-19 peaked at 59 per day on 23 January, the date of the Wuhan travel ban.
(A) Cumulative number of cities reporting cases by 19 February 2020. Arrival days are defined as the time interval (days) from the date of the first case in the first infected city (Wuhan) to the date of the first case in each newly infected city (a total of 324 cities), to characterize the intercity transmission rate of COVID-19. The dashed line indicates the date of the Wuhan travel ban (shutdown). (B) Before (blue) and after (red) the intervention by 30 January 2020, 1 week after the Wuhan travel ban (shutdown). The blue line and points show the fitted regression of arrival times up to the shutdown on day 23 (23 January, vertical dashed line). Gray points show the expected arrival times after day 23, without the shutdown. The red line and points show the fitted regression of delayed arrival times after the shutdown on day 23. Each observation (point) represents one city. Error bars give ±2 standard deviations.
The total number of cases reported from each province by 30 January, 1 week after the Wuhan shutdown, was strongly associated with the total number of travellers from Wuhan [correlation coefficient (r) = 0.98, P < 0.01 excluding Hubei, r = 0.69, P < 0.01] (Fig. 2, B and C). COVID-19 arrived sooner in those cities that had larger populations and had more travellers from Wuhan (Table 1 and table S1). However, the Wuhan travel ban was associated with a delayed arrival time of COVID-19 in other cities by an estimated 2.91 days [95% confidence interval (CI), 2.54 to 3.29 days] on average (Fig. 3B and Table 1).
The dependent variable Y is the arrival time (days) of the outbreak in each city.
This delay provided extra time to prepare for the arrival of COVID-19 in more than 130 cities across China but would not have curbed transmission after infection had been exported to new locations from Wuhan. The timing and implementation of emergency control measures in 342 cities across China are shown in Fig. 1 (figs. S2 and S4). School closure, the isolation of suspected and confirmed patients, plus the disclosure of information were implemented in all cities. Public gatherings were banned and entertainment venues closed in 220 cities (64.3%). Intracity public transport was suspended in 136 cities (39.7%), and intercity travel was prohibited by 219 cities (64.0%). All three measures were applied in 136 cities (table S2).
Cities that implemented a Level 1 response (any combination of control measures) (figs. S2 and S4) preemptively, before discovering any COVID-19 cases, reported 33.3% (95% CI, 11.1 to 44.4%) fewer laboratory-confirmed cases during the first week of their outbreaks (13.0 cases 95% CI, 7.1 to 18.8, n = 125 cities) compared with cities that started control later (20.6 cases, 95% CI, 14.5 to 26.8, n = 171 cities), with a statistically significant difference between the two groups (Mann-Whitney U = 8197, z = –3.4, P < 0.01). A separate analysis using regression models shows that among specific control measures, cities that suspended intracity public transport and/or closed entertainment venues and banned public gatherings, and did so sooner, had fewer cases during the first week of their outbreaks (Table 2 and table S3). This analysis provided no evidence that the prohibition of travel between cities, which was implemented after and in addition to the Wuhan shutdown on 23 January, reduced the number of cases in other cities across China. These results are robust to the choice of statistical regression model (table S3).
Data were evaluated by means of a generalized linear regression model.
The reported daily incidence of confirmed cases peaked in Hubei province (including Wuhan) on 4 February (3156 laboratory-confirmed cases, 5.33 per 100,000 population in Hubei) and in all other provinces on 31 January (875 cases, 0.07 per 100,000 population) (fig. S1). The low level of peak incidence per capita, the early timing of the peak, and the subsequent decline in daily case reports suggest that transmission control measures were associated not only with a delay in the growth of the epidemic but also with a marked reduction in the number of cases. By fitting an epidemic model to the time series of cases reported in each province (fig. S3), we estimate that the (basic) case reproduction number (R0) was 3.15 before the implementation of the emergency response on 23 January (Table 3). As control was scaled-up from 23 January onward (stage 1), the case reproduction number declined to 0.97, 2.01, and 3.05 (estimated as C1R0) in three groups of provinces, depending on the rate of implementation in each group (Table 3 and table S4). Once the implementation of interventions was 95% complete everywhere (stage 2), the case reproduction number had fallen to 0.04 on average (C2R0), far below the replacement rate (≪1) and consistent with the rapid decline in incidence (Fig. 4A, Table 3, fig. S5, and table S4).
BCI, Bayesian confidence interval C1_high, Heilongjiang, Shanghai, Tianjin, Zhejiang, and Hubei (excluding Wuhan) C1_medium, Anhui, Beijing, Fujian, Guangdong, Guangxi, Guizhou, Hunan, Jilin, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Inner Mongolia, Shandong, and Tibet C1_low, Gansu, Hainan, Hebei, Henan, Liaoning, Ningxia, Qinghai, Shanxi, Shaanxi, Sichuan, Xinjiang, Yunnan, and Chongqing.
(A) Epidemic model (line) fitted to daily reports of confirmed cases (points) summed across 31 provinces. Hubei excludes Wuhan city. (B) Expected epidemic trajectories without the Wuhan travel ban (shutdown), and with (blue) or without (red) interventions carried out as part of the Level 1 national emergency response, with the Wuhan travel ban and with (black) or without (orange) the intervention. Vertical dashed lines in (A) and (B) mark the date of the Wuhan travel ban and the start of the emergency response on 23 January. Shaded regions in (A) and (B) mark the 95% prediction envelopes.
On the basis of the fit of the model to daily case reports from each province, and on the preceding statistical analyses, we investigated the possible effects of control measures on the trajectory of the epidemic outside Wuhan city (Fig. 4B). Our model suggests that without the Wuhan travel ban or the national emergency response, there would have been 744,000 (±156,000) confirmed COVID-19 cases outside Wuhan by 19 February, day 50 of the epidemic. With the Wuhan travel ban alone, this number would have decreased to 202,000 (±10,000) cases. With the national emergency response alone (without the Wuhan travel ban), the number of cases would have decreased to 199,000 (±8500). Thus, neither of these interventions would, on their own, have reversed the rise in incidence by 19 February (Fig. 4B). But together and interactively, these control measures offer an explanation of why the rise in incidence was halted and reversed, limiting the number of confirmed cases reported to 29,839 (fitted model estimate 28,000 ± 1400 cases), 96% fewer than expected in the absence of interventions.
This analysis shows that transmission control (nonpharmaceutical) measures initiated during the Chinese Spring Festival holiday, including the unprecedented Wuhan city travel ban and the Level 1 national emergency response, were strongly associated with, although not necessarily the cause of, a delay in epidemic growth and a reduction in case numbers during the first 50 days of the COVID-19 epidemic in China.
The number of people who have developed COVID-19 during this epidemic, and therefore the number of people who were protected by control measures, is not known precisely, given that cases were almost certainly underreported. However, in view of the small fraction of people known to have been infected by 19 February (75,532 cases, 5.41 per 100,000 population), it is unlikely that the spread of infection was halted and epidemic growth reversed because the supply of susceptible people had been exhausted. This implies that a large fraction of the Chinese population remains at risk of COVID-19 control measures may need to be reinstated, in some form, if there is a resurgence of transmission. Further investigations are needed to verify that proposition, and population surveys of infection are needed to reveal the true number of people who have been exposed to this novel coronavirus.
We could not investigate the impact of all elements of the national emergency response because many were introduced simultaneously across China. However, this analysis shows that suspending intracity public transport, closing entertainment venues, and banning public gatherings, which were introduced at different times in different places, were associated with the overall containment of the epidemic. However, other factors are likely to have contributed to control, especially the isolation of suspected and confirmed patients and their contact, and it is not yet clear which parts of the national emergency response were most effective. We did not find evidence that prohibiting travel between cities or provinces reduced the numbers of COVID-19 cases outside Wuhan and Hubei, perhaps because such travel bans were implemented as a response to, rather than in anticipation of, the arrival of COVID-19.
This study has drawn inferences not from controlled experiments but from statistical and mathematical analyses of the temporal and spatial variation in case reports, human mobility, and transmission control measures. With that caveat, control measures were strongly associated with the containment of COVID-19, potentially averting hundreds of thousands of cases by 19 February, day 50 of the epidemic. Whether the means and the outcomes of control can be replicated outside China and which of the interventions are most effective are now under intense investigation as the virus continues to spread worldwide.
This Is The Greatest Sports Day Of The Year
With nine NHL games, three NBA games, an NFL game and an MLB playoff game &mdash made possible by the Chicago Cubs&rsquo victory in Game 4 of the NLCS on Wednesday &mdash Thursday is your (first) sports equinox of 2017.
What&rsquos a sports equinox? As my former colleague Reuben Fischer-Baum wrote on a couple of occasions, it&rsquos when all four major U.S. sports leagues &mdash the NFL, NBA, NHL and MLB &mdash play at least one game on the same day. Historically speaking, it doesn&rsquot happen often. There have only been 17 sports equinoxes in history, including Thursday:
Another sports equinox is in the books
Dates on which all four major U.S. sports leagues (MLB, NBA, NFL and NHL) had at least one game
|NUMBER OF GAMES|
|Oct. 17, 1971||Sun||1 (WS Game 7)||12||3||6|
|Oct. 15, 1972||Sun||1 (WS Game 2)||12||3||6|
|Oct. 22, 1972||Sun||1 (WS Game 7)||12||3||5|
|Oct. 14, 1973||Sun||1 (WS Game 2)||12||3||5|
|Oct. 21, 1973||Sun||1 (WS Game 7)||12||3||5|
|Oct. 15, 1978||Sun||1 (WS Game 5)||13||5||5|
|Oct. 14, 1979||Sun||1 (WS Game 5)||13||3||7|
|Oct. 12, 1980||Sun||1 (NLCS Game 5)||13||4||8|
|Oct. 19, 1980||Sun||1 (WS Game 5)||13||3||6|
|Oct. 27, 1985||Sun||1 (WS Game 7)||13||1||5|
|Nov. 4, 2001||Sun||1 (WS Game 7)||13||7||4|
|Nov. 1, 2009||Sun||1 (WS Game 4)||12||7||4|
|Nov. 2, 2009||Mon||1 (WS Game 5)||1||5||3|
|Nov. 1, 2010||Mon||1 (WS Game 5)||1||3||3|
|Nov. 1, 2015||Sun||1 (WS Game 5)||12||7||5|
|Oct. 30, 2016||Sun||1 (WS Game 5)||11||7||8|
|Oct. 19, 2017||Thu||1 (NLCS Game 5)||1||3||9|
Amazingly, there was a 15-year period without a single sports equinox, between 1985 and 2001. And after 2001, seven more years passed without it happening. But sports equinoxes have occurred much more frequently in recent years &mdash six have happened in the nine years since 2008. They might become even more common in the future, thanks to Thursday-night NFL becoming a fixture, the World Series often running later than usual, and a new NBA scheduling policy this season that moved the season&rsquos opening night up by a week and a half.
If the Cubs can force Game 7 in the NLCS, Sunday will be another sports equinox. As will Oct. 29, if Game 5 of the World Series takes place. But even if those do happen, Thursday&rsquos equinox will be the only one this season with the added bonus of college football &mdash there are two FBS games tonight, including No. 25-ranked Memphis at Houston (A &ldquoSuper Equinox&rdquo?). Good luck finding enough screens to watch it all!
The winter of 2017-18 was relatively cold across Western and North Central New York, as temperatures averaged below normal during four of the five winter months (Nov-March). This came as a subtle surprise to many, as most long range forecasts were suggesting that temperatures would average closer to normal. A large part of these predictions hinged on the expected impacts from a weak La Nina, which interestingly enough has been shown by local studies to support relatively cold winters across the Lower Great Lakes.
La Nina events are defined by lower than normal ocean water temperatures across the Equatorial Pacific. The cooler water deters convection over the far western Pacific, which in turn allows the overlying jet stream winds to be uninterrupted. In the case of an El Nino event, enhanced convection in the same area disrupts the upper level winds over the Pacific. These upper level winds ultimately determine the large scale weather patterns downstream across North America. During a typical La Nina event, a highly amplified jet stream pattern will be found over the mid latitudes where a large ridge will be favored near the Gulf of Alaska, while a deep downstream trough will be found over the eastern half of North America. This amplified pattern can be further exaggerated and locked in place by a second hemispheric teleconnection, the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO).
The NAO is part of the larger scale Arctic oscillation, which as one would expect, relates to the pattern of the arctic jet circling the Pole. In most cases, this circulation pattern includes troughiness over the northern Atlantic and is directly responsible for supporting a surface feature known as an Icelandic Low. A low amplitude, Pacific based flow over the east coast of the United States typically feeds into this large storm system. This fast, near zonal flow will essentially block the southward push of true arctic air into the Great Lakes region, keeping temperatures on the warm side of normal. There are times though where a Greenland block will set up over the north Atlantic. Strong ridging in this area will lead to a closed low becoming established over Quebec and often encourages the notorious polar vortex to drift south towards the Lower 48. This scenario occurs during the negative phase of the NAO which has a high correlation to colder than normal weather over our region. When this pattern coincides with an amplified flow from a weak La Nina the correlation is even stronger for cold weather in our region. Such was the case this past winter.
As we opened the season in November, weak troughing became established over eastern Canada as a result of a teleconnection to ridging over the Aleutians. This led to colder than normal weather over much of Canada, which in turn allowed early season snows to accumulate and persist over Manitoba and Ontario. The building of this snowpack helped to set the stage for the colder than normal winter which was to follow for the Great Lakes region.
Keep in mind that during four of the five winter months, the hemispheric pattern was dominated by ridging over the northern Pacific and extensive troughing over the eastern half of Canada. This flow was exaggerated December into early January when the polar vortex drifted some 500 miles further to the south than usual, averaging in a location near James Bay. Not only did this promote frequent cross polar flows, but it also directed cold air that was manufactured over the abnormally extensive snowpack over Manitoba and Ontario towards our region. Temperatures over our area plummeted to nearly 5 degrees below normal during this period with even greater departures found just to our north.
While this general pattern remained in place for the first half of January, the amplitude started to relax as we pushed deeper into the month. By February, a trough had become established over the western states. This allowed a broad, flat ridge to develop over the eastern states with a strong southerly jet favoring significant warming over the Great Lakes region. After several months of colder than normal weather, the mercury in February soared to more than five degrees above normal. This brought hope for an end to the cold weather, but Mother Nature had a different idea.
A renewed Greenland block in March enabled a closed low to once again set up shop over eastern Canada. Temperatures over our region returned to below normal levels where they stayed in place through the spring month of April. In fact&helliponly 11 of the 61 days (<20%) of March and April had mercury readings above normal. This cold pattern finally broke down in May as the polar jet retreated to the north while the general amplitude flattened.
2 thoughts on &ldquo The History of LinkedIn &rdquo
I’m looking for a comprehensive manual or book on everything LinkedIn and how to best make use of it – do you have a recommendation?
In the last week, alone, I went from 73 connections to well over 600, and I’m on the verge, within literally a couple more weeks of completely penetrating my target market as an executive recruiter/headhunter, but I don’t want to make any mistakes as I begin the process of engaging my newfound network using both LinkedIn and personalized, targeted email merges using an Outlook add-in.
I want to be careful, beginning with the end in mind so I need a one stop point of reference for all my LinkedIn needs. It’s so exciting. I’ve been “headhunting” for 28 years now, and I just built a network in a week that would have taken me over 5 years or more to build from scratch in the old days!
I have been chased to write a book for years and always took the view that it was kind of pointless as it all changes so fast!
Both the application itself when LinkedIn make changes (most days at present!) and also how people look at and use the platform and hence I could never justify the time to do it. The best way to make it work is to either get yourself on a course from someone or keep up to date by watching the blog here.
The one observation I would make is to think about your strategy for building your network as vision of interesting people and access can be diametrically opposed if you’re not careful.