(AR-5: dp. 12,911 1. 530'; b. 73'4", dr. 19'; s. 19.2 k.;
cpl. 1,297; a. i 5", 4 .50-car. mg.; cl. Vulcan)
Vulcan (AR-5) was laid down on 16 December 1939 at Camden, N.J. by the New York Shipbuilding Corp.; launched on li December 1940, sponsored by Mrs. James Forrestal, wife of the Under Secretary of the Navy, and commissioned at the Philadelphia Navy Yard on 14 June 1941, Comdr. Leon S. Fiske in command.
Following her shakedown cruise to San Juan, Puerto Rico, and Guantanamo Bay, Vulcan underwent postshakedown repairs at the Philadelphia Navy Yard in mid-August. Assigned to the Atlantic Fleet Train on the 20th, the repair ship departed Philadelphia the following day and proceeded, via Casco Bay, Maine, to Argentia, Newfoundland.
By this time, the Atlantic Fleet was becoming more fully involved in the Battle of the Atlantic. In July 1941, at the request of the Icelandic government, the United States had occupied Iceland-the strategic island which, as the German geopolitician Karl Haushofer wrote, lay pointed "like a pistol . at the United States"—and had established bases at the barren ports of Reykjavik and Hvalfjordur. Marine wags soon nicknamed these places "Rinky Dink" and "Valley Forge," respectively.
Prompted by fears that the German battleship Tirpitz would break out into the Atlantic as her sister ship Bismarck had done in the spring of 1941, the Navy dispatched a task force to Iceland to deter such a move. Accordingly, the unit-designated Task Force (TF) 4 and based around Wasp (CV-7)—sailed from Argentia on 23 September. Besides the valuable carrier, the force included Mississippi (BB-41), Wichita
(CA-45), Vulcan, and a screen of four destroyers. A German U-boat, prowling to the southwest of Iceland, sighted the ships on the 26th but could not keep up with or identify the Americans. Having outpaced their adversary, TF 4 reached "Valley Forge" on 28 September.
While Tirpitz did not sortie, the U-boats continued their deadly forays against Allied shipping. By the fall of 1941, American destroyers were engaged in convoy operations half-way across the Atlantic, turning their charges over to British units at the MOMP (mid-ocean meeting point). On 4 September, Greer (DD-145) narrowly avoided being torpedoed after shadowing a German U-boat.
During the midwatch on 17 October 1941, U~68 torpedoed Kearny (DD-432) while the latter was screening Convoy SC-48. With 11 bluejackets dead Kearn~y limped into Reykjavik, a gaping hole and buckled plating disfiguring her starboard side below and aft of the bridge. Vulcan provided timely and effective assistance to the stricket warship. Since permanent repair facilities-such as a drydock-were nonexistent, Kearny pulled up alongside the repair vessel, and her port side was flooded to raise the torpedo hole above water level. Soon, Vulcan's repair force had cut away the damaged plating and had fixed a patch. By Christmas 1941, Kearny could sail for the east coast and permanent repairs at Boston.
Operations in these inhospitable climes posed natural dangers as well-fog and storms frequently hampered operations and caused collisions. In November, Niblaek (DD-424) was rammed by a Norwegian freighter. The destroyer had been scouring Iceland's coastal waters for a straying Icelandic merchant vessel when the accident occurred, costing Niblack an anchor and putting a hole in her side plating. Vulcan swiftly fixed the damage and patched the side, enabling the destroyer to resume her vital escort duties.
Vulcan remained in Iceland's chill and barren area into the spring of 1942. Meanwhile, on 7 December 1941, a Japanese task force had struck Pearl Harbor and severely crippled the battleships of the Pacific Fleet, plunging the United States into war on both oceans. Vulcan-bound for home in company with Tarazed (AF-13), Livermore (DD-429), and the familiar Kearny—departed "Valley Forge" on 26 April 1942 and arrived at Boston on 2 May. There, the repair ship underwent a drydocking before she returned northward to support the Fleet's operations in the North Atlantic. Based at Argentia from 16 June to 14 November, Vulcan shifted to Hvalfjordur and relieved
Melville (AD-2) there on 18 November. She remained at "Valley Forge" until she got underway on 6 April 1943, bound via Londonderry, Northern Ireland, for Hampton Roads.
After repairs at Norfolk from 8 to 22 June, Vulcan headed for the Mediterranean and arrived at Oran, Algeria, on the 27th. Shifting to Algiers in late June, Vulcan sent a fire and rescue party to the burning British ammunition ship Arrow. Three Vulcan sailors brought a boat alongside the flaming vessel and cut through her side plating to rescue British sailors trapped belowdecks. For their bravery and resourcefulness, the trio from the repair ship received decorations from the British government and Navy and Marine Corps medals from their own.
Vulcan remained based on the North African coast into the summer of 1944. In August and September, the repair ship supported the invasion of southern France and received her sole battle star for providing repair services to the ships and craft involved in the operation.
By late 1944, Vulcan was urgently reacquired in the Pacific, and she accordingly departed the Mediterranean on 23 November 1944 in Convoy GUS-59. After voyage repairs at Norfolk which lasted into January 1945, the repair ship sailed for the South Pacific. Arriving at Guadalcanal on 9 February 1945, Vucan operated successively out of Tulagi, Noumea and Ulithi for the remainder of the war. From Ulithi, Vulcan serviced the amphibious units which participated in the assault on the key island of Okinawa.
After hostilities with Japan ceased, Vulcan shifted to Okinawa and entered Buckner Bay in the wake of a destructive typhoon which had forced some ships aground and had severely damaged others. Repair work was well in hand by late September, when another typhoon threatened the anchorage. Vulcan led 17 merchantmen to sea in a typhoon evasion sortie-a mission successfully accomplished without loss or damage by 28 September.
Vulcan sailed for Japan immediately thereafter to support the occupation of the erstwhile enemy's home islands. Leading a group of service force ships and oilers through dangerous, still-mined waters, Vulcan arrived in Hiro Wan, near Kure, Japan, on 8 October. Here, the repair ship established an advance service unit to provide food, oil, and water to the ships of the occupation force based there. She also set up mail medical, and recreational facilities ashore. In addition she performed maintenance tasks on the diesel-powere vessels of the mine forces then clearing the waters around the Japanese home islands.
Vulcan also operated out of Kobe and Yokosuka into the new year. Departing Yokosuka on 9 March 1946, the repair ship sailed for the east coast of the United States, calling at Pearl Harbor and transiting the Panama Canal en route. She arrived at Brooklyn,
N.Y., on 15 April 1946. Vulcan operated at Newport R I, until February 1954, when she shifted to Norfolk
The ship, supporting the Atlantic Fleet with repair services, was homeported at Norfolk into the mid1970's. During this time, she conducted repairs, alterations, and overhauls on a wide variety of vessels. She called at ports from the Caribbean to Canada, providing repair services to the Fleet at such ports as Guantanamo Bay, San Juan, New York, and Boston as well as Mayport, Fla., and Charleston, S.C.
When American intelligence pinpointed the presence of Russian missiles in Cuba in the fall of 1962, the United States and the Soviet Union stood "eyeball to eyeball" in the Caribbean. Vulcan sailed to San Juan, where she provided essential repair services to the ships operating on the "quarantine" line off Cuban shores to prevent the arrival of any further Russian military equipment. The ship also assumed an additional role as electronics and ordnance repair vessel as well. After supporting the Cuban blockade from 2 to 26 November, she returned to Norfolk to resume normal operations.
Only once in the 1960's and 1970's did Vulcan venture beyond her normal deployment bounds of the east coast and the Caribbean. In the fall of 1964, the repair ship sailed for Europe to participate in NATO exercises. Departing Norfolk on 8 September, bound for Scotland, she arrived at Greenock on 21 September.
After participating in NATO Exercise "Teamwork," Vulcan called at Antwerp, Belgium, Le Havre, France
and Rota, Spain, before participating in amphibious Exercise "Steel Pike I" off Huelva, Spain. She returned to Norfolk soon thereafter to again take up her regular duties.
Besides type and underway training exercises at sea, Vulcan made an occasional NROTC midshipman cruise and conducted individual ship exercises in between her regular long assignments as repair ship at Norfolk. Among the ships for which Vulcan provided availabilities was the intelligence ship Liberty (AGTR5). Between 24 March and 21 April, Liberty lay alongside the repair ship before getting underway later that spring for the fateful overseas deployment in which she was attacked by Israeli planes and motor torpedo boats off El Arishon on the morning of 8 June 1967. In the 1970's, Vulcan's itinerary included recreational and port visits to such places as Cartagena, Colombia; Ft. Lauderdale, Fla., Halifax, Nova Scotia and the more regular ports such as Charleston and Guantanamo Bay. During the ship's major overhaul in 1976, her long-time main battery-four 5-inch guns— was removed and replaced by four 20-millimeter guns.
Vulcan, as of April 1978, continued to serve at Norfolk as an Atlantic Fleet repair ship.
Vulcan received one battle star for her World War II service.
Infographic: History of Augmented Reality
From its use in NASA’s spacecraft in the 1990s to the explosive popularity of Pokemon Go, augmented reality has evolved to become one of the most exciting technologies of our time. But how did it all begin? Who came up with augmented reality, and when was the first augmented reality created? Read on to discover some of the defining moments in AR’s history.
1968: Ivan Sutherland created the first head mounted display, called The Sword of Damocles. It paved the way for the AR we use today.
1990: The term augmented reality was coined by Boeing researcher Tom Caudell.
1992: Louis Rosenberg created the first fully immersive AR system at the U.S Air Force Research Laboratory.
1998: Augmented reality was first used for navigation, in NASA's X-38 spacecraft.
2000: AR Quake launched - the first AR game. As well as a head-mounted display, players had to wear a backpack containing a computer & gyroscopes!
2005: The early 2000s saw the debut of augmented reality apps for smartphones. One of the first was AR Tennis - a two-player AR game developed for Nokia phones.
2008: BMW was the first brand to make use of AR for commercial purposes, with its AR enhanced print ads.
2009: Esquire published the first AR-enabled magazine when it let readers scan the cover to make Robert Downey Jr come to life on the page.
2012: Blippar launched the first cloud-based AR app.
2014: Blippar developed the first AR game for Google Glass, which was demoed at the Mobile World Congress.
2016: Niantic and Nintendo launched Pokemon Go - the hugely popular location-based AR game that put AR on the mainstream map.
2017: The number of AR users in the U.S hit 37 million. This is expected to grow to 67 million by 2020!
Reckon you’re an augmented reality expert? Take our quiz to put your knowledge to the test!
The Complete History of the AR-15 Rifle
The ArmaLite 15 is a classic assault rifle. You might know it better as an M-16, the U.S. Military's version of the weapon. Today, we are going to take you through the history of this iconic American weapon, from its inception in 1959 to the present day.
A common misconception about the AR-15 is that "AR" stands for "assault rifle," a phrase that stems from the German "Sturmgewehr" ("Storm" or "assault" rifle) used in World War II propaganda posters and later applied to military-style weapons. This shouldn't be confused with the term "Assault Weapon," a legal term for a specific class of illegal firearm during the years 1994 to 2004.
Ironically enough, the AR-15 fits both of these descriptions: it's a military style rifle that was illegal during the 1994 Federal Assault Weapons Ban. The "AR" in the name, however, stands for the name of the manufacturer: ArmaLite.
1950's: The ArmaLite Company is Founded
The ArmaLite Company traces its humble beginnings back to the early 1950's in Hollywood, California. The company was founded by George Sullivan, who worked as the patent counsel for the Lockheed Corporation (today Lockheed Martin). The small arms company received its funding from the Fairchild Engine and Airplane Corporation, the company that would soon become Fairchild-Republic, a major manufacturer of military aircraft for the U.S. Military.
Originally, the company focused on weapons design, rather than manufacture. Instead of producing weapons themselves, ArmaLite focused on weapons design. The chief architect behind ArmaLite's weapons designs was Eugene Stoner, a young man in his thirties with a knack for weapons design. Sullivan quickly promoted Stoner to the position of chief design engineer for ArmaLite.
1954-1956: ArmaLite Begins Designing Rifles
In 1954, the first weapon design from ArmaLite was produced: the AR-5. This bolt-action rifle with a .22 Hornet round was developed as a survival rifle for the flight crew in the U.S. Airforce.
What was the concept behind the AR-5? The United States Air Force needed a rifle that would be lightweight and compact enough to stowaway onboard a bomber in the airplane's survival kits.
The Airforce adopted the AR-5, calling it the MA-1, adopting it for regular use in 1956. The AR-5 came apart, letting you stow it away, and would even float, making it ideal for use during a water landing.
The AR-5 put ArmaLite on the map, giving them the credibility they needed to go on to develop new firearm innovations.
Many early designs were civilian survival weapons, like the AR-7.
Despite the company having the backing of two of the largest military aircraft manufacturers, ArmaLite originally intended to focus on making civilian weaponry, rather than craft weapons for the military.
These early ArmaLite designs were built to be taken apart into pieces and put back together making it something that could be stored on an aircraft or vehicle for emergency survival situations.
1955: The U.S. Army Seeks a Replacement Rifle
In 1955, the United States Military decided it was time to replace the tried-and-true M1 Garand, the staple of World War II that had served admirably at the time, but was limited in regards to its ammunition capacity. The M1 Garand only held eight rounds and weighed over ten and a half-pounds, making the elegant firearm a bit of an antique.
Armaline came late to the race to design the military's next rifle, introducing the AR-10 into the mix alongside the Springfield T-44 and T-48. The company only had time to show the military two hand-built models based on their fourth AR-10 prototype.
The AR-10 prototypes were designed with a straight stock, elevated sights, an aluminum flash suppressor, a recoil compensator, and a gas system.
Most of the military had positive things to say about the AR-10. It was lightweight, and many of the testers thought it to be one of the best rifles they'd ever shot.
Unfortunately, the barrel could not past the "torture test," bursting under pressure. Although ArmaLite quickly introduced a steel barrel to counteract this damage, it was too late, causing the Springfield Armory to advise the military not to adapt the AR-10 rifle, reporting that it would take five or more years of testing to bring the weapon up to date.
Instead, they chose the T44, now known as the M-14, which was adopted in 1957.
1956-1959: International Licensing Agreement For The AR-10
On the fourth of July, 1957 the Dutch weapons company Artillerie Inrichtingen bought rights to produce the AR-10 for five years.
In 1957, the international arms dealer Samuel Cummings secured a weapons contract with Nicaragua, the chief military commander of which was General Anatasio Somoza, the same Anatasio Somoza who would later become famous as the dictator of the country, until the Nicaraguan people had enough, overthrowing him in 1979. Anatasio Somoza tested the AR-10 rifles himself. While firing the rifles, the bolt lug over the ejector broke, nearly slicing the general's hand. This ended all deals with Nicaragua.
Meanwhile, Artillerie Inrichtingen kept finding factory defects and problems with the new AR-10 rifle, which meant that the rifle received very distribution. Most of the AR-10 rifles made their way to Sudan and Portugual.
1959: ArmaLite Sells the AR-15 Design to Colt Production Begins
In 1959, ArmaLite finally catches a break, striking a deal with Colt. The company manages to sell both the AR-10 and the new AR-15 designs to Colt Firearms.
At this point, Robert Fremont, who had been one of the major players on the design team for both weapons, heads over to Colt to help oversee production.
At this time, the AR-7 gets launched full scale, marketed as a civilian survival rifle, although it also saw some military use.
The first AR-15 weapons were sold by Colt to the Federation of Malaya (modern day Malaysia).
1961: Eugene Stoner Becomes a Consultant at Colt
At this time, Eugene Stoner leaves the ArmaLite company, taking a position as a consultant at Colt. Around the same time, the United States Airforce tests the AR-15, commissioning 8,500 for Air Force use.
1963: The M-16 is Born
With the AR-15 in the hands of the Air Force, a standard model of the rifle is born. They dub it the M-16, the most famous service weapon of the United States Military.
General Curtis LeMay saw a demonstration of the AR-15 in 1960. Impressed by the prowess of this new firearm, when General LeMay became the Air Force Chief of Staff in the Summer of 1961, he placed 80,000 AR-15's on order for the U.S. Air Force.
In 1961, ten AR-15's were sent to South Vietnam, as the United States continued to penetrate into the jungles of Indochina.
Despite a great deal of success, US Army wasn't enthusiastic about adopting the new rifle.
Although test after test was ordered, even demanding the attention of President John F. Kennedy itself, two things were clear. First, the United States was outmatched and outgunned by the AK-47 in South Vietnam. Second, the U.S. Army was too rigid and opposed to change to replace the clearly inferior M-14.
Despite the continued resistance, production problems with the M-14 forced the hands of Robert McNamara, the U.S. Secretary of Defense. The United States needed a rifle that could be used in all four branches of service. The M-16 would be this weapon.
As I mentioned, the M-16 was adapted to be used against the AK-47. Today, of course, the AK-47 is known as the M-16's greatest nemesis. The debate about which of these two weapons is better has kept history buffs and gun owners up until the wee hours of the morning many a late night.
In this article, we'll refrain from passing judgment between the two.
1965: The M-16 Becomes the Primary Service Rifle
The first M-16 rifles were issued in March of 1965.
The Vietnam War was in full swing, and American troops poured into South Vietnam, armed with 300,000 brand new M-16's bought from Colt.
The rifle wasn't without its problems. First, soldiers weren't given cleaning kits. Even today, the AR-15 models are infamous for being much less able to take rugged terrain than its Russian counterpart: the Ak-47.
Colt had erroneously claimed the rifle to be self-cleaning. This meant the rifle wasn't clean, and would keep jamming. Most often, the problem was "failure to extract," i.e. the cartridge would get stuck in the chamber after firing.
Report after report came in about soldiers found dead, rifles in pieces in front of them as they desperately tried to put their rifle back together in time to shoot back. In the words of one Marine:
"We left with 72 men in our platoon and came back with 19, Believe it or not, you know what killed most of us? Our own rifle. Practically every one of our dead was found with his (M16) torn down next to him where he had been trying to fix it" (Time Magazine, 1967)
The new rifle was designed, a version of the M-16 called the M16A1. Included with the rifle was a comic book, outlining how to clean and take care of the rifle.
1989: Production of the First AR-15's for Civilians Begins
With the AR-15 patents long expired, Jim Glazier and Karl Lewis started manufacturing the first civilian versions of the AR-15. These opened AR-15's up to the civilian market from the year 1989 to 1994.
1994-2004: Civilian Production Halts
Civilian production had to be halted, however, after the Federal Assault Weapons Ban made civilian assault weapons illegal from 1994 to 2004. Unfortunately, this legislation resulted in no significant decrease in gun violence.
Did the legislation ultimately fail? In light of the growing number of public mass shootings in recent years, the debate between gun enthusiasts and anti-gun activists continues.
2012-Present: The AR-15 Media Controversy
The AR-15 has recently been in the media spotlight, as the weapon has been involved in a number of deadly assaults on civilians in the United States. This has launched a heated debate over the future of civilian versions of the AR-15 and other similar rifles.
The AR-15 was used on the deadly assault on Sandy Hook, the 2015 attack in San Bernardino, as well as the shooting a movie theatre in Aurora, Colorado.
Could renewing the Federal Assault Weapons Ban have prevented these violent crimes? Lawmakers continue to disagree. Most statistics, however, point in the direction of handguns, not rifles, as being involved in most violent crimes.
Today: The M-16 and Militaries Around the World
The AR-15 continued to be the service weapon of the United States in the years to come, until finally being phased out for the M4 Carbine, a weapon based off the M-16, but designed to be shorter and lighter.
Nevertheless, the M-16 is still used throughout the world by militaries all over.
Even though it's starting to be phased out in the United States, it still remains a popular choice for militaries across the world.
The M16 remains in use in more than fifteen NATO countries and over eighty countries across the globe. Manufacturing continues in the United States, Canada, and China. It has also become the focus of civilian gun enthusiasts who have developed new markets for accessories like AR red dot scopes and other optics systems.
The M-16 might have been replaced in the United States Military, but it's far from an antique. Production continues, as the M-15 models continue to see use in militaries around the world. Likewise, the AR-15 continues to be a favorite of hunters and gun hobbyists, making it one of the most popular modern sporting rifle choices on the market today.
Vulcan III AR-5 - History
Special Collections and University Archives, Patricia W. and J. Douglas Perry Library, Old Dominion University
Old Dominion University
Norfolk, Virginia 23529-0256
Phone: (757) 683-4483
Fax: (757) 683-5954
Email: [email protected]
© 2002 By Rector and Board of Visitors of Old Dominion University.
Funding: Web version of the finding aid funded in part by a grant from the National Endowment for the Humanities.
Processed by: Michael A. Southwood
The collection is open to researchers without restrictions.
Questions on literary property rights should be directed to the Special Collections Librarian.
[Identification of item], Box [insert number], Folder [insert number and title], Papers of the USS Vulcan (AR-5), Special Collections and University Archives, Patricia W. and J. Douglas Perry Library, Old Dominion University Libraries, Norfolk, VA 23529.
Donated to the Special Collections of Old Dominion University by Michael Southwood, December 10, 1984.
Accession # A84-6
The USS Vulcan (AR-5), a 50-year veteran of naval service, easily ranks as one of the U.S. Navy's most historic repair vessels. The USS Vulcan Collection was established to preserve the long record of repair support logged by the men and women who have served aboard the Atlantic Fleet's oldest active ship (second in the entire Navy) over the years. In addition, the collection also includes some material pertaining to the first and second Vulcans. The Vulcan was based in Norfolk from 1954 until her decommissioning in 1991.
The first Vulcan was commissioned at the Boston Navy Yard on May 31, 1898. Her commanding officer was Commander Ira Harris. Originally named Chatham, the fourteen year-old steamship was purchased by the Navy Department from the Merchants and Miners Transportation Company, a Baltimore firm, on May 2, 1898. Envisioned as a floating, mobile workshop and store ship, the repair vessel was needed to support the American fleet then operating off the southeastern coast of Cuba. Renamed Vulcan, conversion work began at a rapid pace, with completion ending about four weeks later. As recognized by the Naval Historical Center, Vulcan was now, "the fleet's first repair ship."
After a brief stop in Newport News, Virginia, Vulcan arrived in the waters off Santiago de Cuba on July 1, 1898. Following the decisive American victory on July 3, Vulcan was given the task to repair and salvage two captured, badly damaged Spanish vessels, the Maria Teresa and the Cristobal Colon. Over the next few months, Vulcan made repairs to over fifty ships and brought badly needed stores to a like number while attached to the American fleet in Cuba.
As hostilities subsided, Vulcan was recalled to the United States, where she underwent a refitting period at the Norfolk Naval Shipyard in Portsmouth. Her services no longer required, Vulcan was decommissioned in January 1899. Her impressive performance prompted the Chief, Bureau of Steam Engineering to recommend the procurement of a similar repair ship for the Pacific fleet.
The second Vulcan (Collier No. 5), a coal ship, was commissioned at the Norfolk Navy Yard on October 2, 1909. Her initial crew was from another collier, the Lebanon, which was decommissioned at the yard on the same day. Vulcan's first commanding officer was Captain Jere Merrithew, USN. Prior to the First World War, Vulcan operated out of Norfolk and Portsmouth, New Hampshire, delivering coal and stores to the fleet along the East Coast and various Caribbean islands.
During World War I, Vulcan was assigned to the Fleet Train which was made up of service vessels providing coal and supplies to the Allied naval forces. In January 1919, Vulcan was next assigned to the Naval Overseas Transportation Service for six months of duty. Placed out of commission in July 1921, Vulcan was sold to N. Block and Company of Norfolk, a scrap metal firm, in December 1923.
The USS Vulcan (AR-5) was the third U.S. Navy vessel to bear the name of the Roman god of fire, metalworking, and craftsmanship. Vulcan was launched on December 14, 1940 just about a year after keel was laid down in mid-December 1939 by the New York Shipbuilding Corporation at Camden, New Jersey. Mrs. James Forrestal, wife of the Undersecretary of the Navy, was the ship's sponsor.
Six months later, on June 16, 1941 USS Vulcan was commissioned with Lieutenant Commander P. G. Hale, USN, listed as the ship's first commanding officer. Captain R. W. Mathewson, the guest speaker for the commissioning ceremony designated the new repair ship and her crew to be the "craftsman, forger, and healer of wounded floating warriors of the Navy."
After her shakedown cruise, Vulcan served as repair ship in Hvalfjordur, Iceland, arriving there in September 1941. At this time, British and American destroyers were screening merchant convoys, representing a vital sea link between North America and war-ravaged Europe. Weeks before Pearl Harbor and our entry into World War II, American destroyers were attacked by German U- boats while on patrol. On October 17, the USS Kearny (DD-432) was torpedoed, suffering thirty-three casualties. Returning to the American anchorage under her own power, Kearny was positioned alongside Vulcan for repairs. Two weeks later, on October 31, the USS Reuben James (DD-245) was sunk by a Nazi marauder. Eventually, some of the wounded from both of the destroyers were cared for in Vulcan's sickbay.
By Christmas 1941, the Kearny was ready to return to the United States for further work. In recognition of the fine job performed by Vulcan's crew, Admiral E. J. King sent a letter saying, "the successful accomplishment of this feat of repairs merits the sincere appreciation of all, and is an inspiration to those in the Naval service ashore who are building and repairing units of the fleet."
Vulcan remained in Iceland until April 1942. She left on the 26th and one of her escorts was the Kearny. Arriving in Boston on May 2, Kearny blinked a grateful message to Vulcan: "Thanks for all you did." Vulcan's brief dry dock period was interrupted in late May. The destroyer-tender USS Prairie (AD-15), then berthed in Argentia, Newfoundland, had suffered extensive damage when a fire from an alongside ship spread to the tender. As a result, Vulcan was called upon to relieve the Prairie. Vulcan served as repair ship in Argentina until November 14. Commissioned in August 1940, the Prairie was based in San Diego and was the only active ship in the Navy older than Vulcan, until its decommissioning in March 1993.
In mid-November, Vulcan returned to Hvaljordur and relieved the USS Melville (AD-2), from her repair assignment. On April 6, 1943 Vulcan left Iceland for Hampton Roads, but set a course via Londonderry, Northern Ireland, because of the German submarine danger.
Following an outfitting period in Norfolk, Vulcan arrived in French Algeria on June 27, 1943. First based in the capital city of Algiers, Vulcan supported the Sicilian invasion as head of Task Force 87 Train, a collection of twelve auxiliary vessels. On August 4, a Vulcan rescue and assistance team came to the aid of HMS Arrow, a British ammunition ship that had caught fire in the harbor. Three Vulcan sailors received Navy and Marine Corps Medals for their heroic efforts. During one German air raid on the port, Vulcan gunners were credited with downing a Junker-88 divebomber.
In October 1943, Vulcan sailed west for Oran and berthed in nearby Mers-el-Kebir, the principal French naval facility. While there, Vulcan supported the Sardinian, Corsican, Anzio, and southern France invasions. As Admiral H. D. Hewitt's flagship (Commander, North African Waters), Vulcan hosted Generals Eisenhower, Patton, Bradley, and Clark.
Vulcan left Algeria in November 1944. After repairs and outfitting, Vulcan departed Norfolk in mid-January of 1945. Arriving off Guadalcanal, Solomon Islands, on February 9, Vulcan later shifted to the Florida Island and Tulagi Island area (fifteen miles north of Guadalcanal) for repair duty. After a brief stay in Noumea, New Caledonia, Vulcan transferred to Ulithi Atoll, Service Squadron TEN's famous "Overhaul Center of the Pacific." While at Ulithi, Vulcan workers were dispatched to anchored ships in need of maintenance and received the USS Biloxi (CL-80) and USS Hinsdale (APA-120) alongside to repair damage suffered from kamikaze attacks.
In May 1945, Vulcan moved to Leyte Gulf, Philippines, where she received the USS Randolph (CV-15), USS New Mexico (BB-40), USS Block Island (CVE-16), and USS Rocky Mount (AFC-3) for alongside repairs.
Following Japan's-surrender, Vulcan steamed to Buckner Bay, Okinawa. She not only offered her wide array of repair services, but also on September 28, led seventeen merchant ships from the harbor to avoid damage from an approaching typhoon.
Vulcan served on occupation duty in Japan from October 1945 until March 1946. After spending a few days in Pearl Harbor, Vulcan transited the Panama Canal and returned to the United States.
Newport, Rhode Island served as Vulcan's homeport for about eight years until the tender was transferred to Norfolk in February 1954. While in Newport, Vulcan's crew was actively involved with the civilian community and the ship's athletic teams were always among the city's best.
In late 1962, Vulcan participated in the Cuban Quarantine operation by providing repair services to the ships manning the naval blockade (November 3-29).
In October 1963, on her way home following the completion of a training cruise, Vulcan rescued a 41-ft. yawl named "Northern Light," carrying three crewmen. Standing by the stricken craft through the night, Vulcan towed the yawl to Little Creek the next morning.
Vulcan again performed rescue duties in March 1964 when she came to the aid of the USS Antares (AKS-33) and helped extinguish an uncontrolled fire that was raging in the supply ship's No. 3 hold. In late 1964, Vulcan participated in the NATO exercise "Teamwork" and then proceeded to take part in "Steel Spike I," the largest amphibious exercise since the end of World War II.
In May 1965, Vulcan served as flagship for a mobile logistic support group and provided repair support to units of the fleet engaged in the Dominican Republic intervention. President Johnson eventually ordered 30,000 U.S. troops to maintain order in the Caribbean nation.
Among the many ships Vulcan serviced in 1967 was the USS Liberty (AGTR-5), which was later accidentally attacked by Israeli planes and gunboats during the Arab-Israeli conflict. Although Vulcan remained in Norfolk during the Vietnam years, many vessels repaired by her were transferred for duty with the Pacific Fleet.
In late 1975, Vulcan paid a working visit to Cartagena, Colombia, where she tended three ex-U.S. Navy destroyers of that nation's navy. Not only did Vulcan repair the vessels, but her crew also provided valuable training to their Colombian counterparts.
A comprehensive overhaul lasting nine months was completed in 1976. Gone were the ship's four five-inch guns. In 1977, while returning from underway training, Vulcan was called upon to assist a Portuguese destroyer named Coutinho. Alongside, Vulcan provided emergency boiler feedwater to the Coutinho.
By a matter of hours, Vulcan became the first non-hospital ship in the Navy to receive women officers on November 1, 1978. The first contingents of enlisted women in arrived in December 1978 and January 1979. Vulcan's first point-to-point cruise with women took place in February 1979, with a trip to Earle, New Jersey. In September 1979, Vulcan left Norfolk for the Navy's first Mediterranean cruise with a mixed crew. A pioneer in the Women in Navy Ships (WINS) program, female sailors made up one-seventh of the crew.
In September 1980, Vulcan deployed to the North Atlantic to participate in the NATO exercise "Teamwork 80" which included ships from the United States, United Kingdom, the Netherlands, and West Germany. Vulcan completed an extensive overhaul of thirteen months in mid-February 1983. Captain J. E. McConville, the ship's thirty-fourth commanding officer, guided Vulcan to a successful completion of the difficult overhaul and subsequent refresher training. In May 1983, while en route to Florida from Guantanamo Bay, Cuba, Vulcan assisted a Haitian refugee boat, the "Rose Carida," adrift without power for three days.
Port visits to St. John's New Brunswick and Earle, N.J., were made in the first half of 1984. On October 1, Vulcan left for Diego Garcia, where she was scheduled to relieve the USS Yosemite, another World War II- era vessel. Vulcan resumed her Norfolk duties in mid-1985.
Scope and Content Information
The bulk of the collection consists of material gathered by Michael A. Southwood, while a crewmember of USS Vulcan, 1982-1983. In October 1982, at the request of Commander Donald J. Farber (executive officer), and Captain J. E. McConville (commanding officer), Petty Officer Southwood began writing a history of USS Vulcan, one of only a few World War II-era vessels still in commission at this time. A completed manuscript was given to Captain McConville in early 1984, and a copy may be found in Series II, Box 2, Folder 5. Prior to his transfer in mid-1984, Captain McConville suggested the establishment of a USS Vulcan archival collection, with the purpose of preserving and making accessible, the historical record of one of the Navy's most noted ships. Captain McConville felt that nearby Old Dominion University would be appropriate for a site since Norfolk has served as Vulcan's homeport for over three decades. Even with the Vulcan out to sea, Captain McConville recognized that men and women who had traveled many miles to see their old ship would not be disappointed, because the collection would only be a brief drive from the Naval Base.
The papers are divided into nine series: Series I: Previous USS Vulcans Series II: Historical Material Series III: Crewmember Recollections and Memorabilia Series IV: Shipboard Publications Series V: Shipboard Offices Series VI: Newspaper Clippings Series VII: Athletics Recreation Series VIII: Photographs Series IX: Miscellaneous.
Culture and tradition
Meditation was central component of Vulcan life.
According to Spock (TOS: Amok Time) it is "undignified for a woman to play servant to a man that is not hers" as his reason for throwing food (from Nurse Chapel) against the wall. Yet, T'Pol brings food to Archer (ENT: A Night in Sickbay).
Vulcan wedding ceremony, ca 2260s
Vulcans were fermenting wines, notably Vulcan port, during the 21st century. ( DS9 : " The Maquis, Part I ")
Although not always, most Vulcans were primarily vegetarians. They also did not touch food with their hands unless wearing special gloves. ( ENT : " Broken Bow ", " Home ") The v'tosh ka'tur were a major exception, however. ( ENT : " Fusion ")
Guests in a Vulcan household were expected to rise before sunrise to prepare the morning meal. ( ENT : " Home ") Plomeek broth was considered a traditional Vulcan breakfast. ( ENT : " Unexpected ")
What little is known about Vulcan religious beliefs indicates that, beginning prior to the "Time of the Awakening", they were polytheistic. Surak's teachings became the primary focus of Vulcan spirituality/mysticism, but, as late as the 23rd century, it was still not unheard of to find Vulcans honoring the traditional gods. There were, however, no demons in Vulcan literature. ( TAS : " Yesteryear " TNG : " Gambit, Part I " VOY : " Heroes and Demons ")
Many Vulcan females had names beginning with "T'" and particularly "T'P" (T'Pol, T'Pring, T'Pau, T'Mir, T'Pel, T'Pan), but not all (Valeris, Sakonna, Saavik, Selar) many males had names beginning with "S" (Spock, Sarek, Sybok, Surak, Stonn, Soval) again, though, there was variation (Tuvok, Lojal, Vorik, Taurik, Koss).
Touching each other with both the middle- and the forefinger was a custom practiced by married couples and was part of the Vulcan marriage ceremony. ( TOS : " Journey to Babel " VOY : " Bliss " ENT : " Home ") It could also help to calm down male Vulcans during pon farr. ( Star Trek III: The Search for Spock )
Vulcans occasionally gave gifts. However, Vulcan custom did not include receiving a gift back from a recipient. ( Star Trek Beyond )
A Vulcan program suitable for young children which taught basic problem solving skills was available at Deep Space 9's school in 2370. ( DS9 : " Whispers ")
The Vulcan Science Academy and Vulcan Medical Institute were two notable post-secondary institutions.
Vulcans did possess family names, although they were pronounceable by Humans only after many years of practice. ( TOS : " Journey to Babel ")
Vulcan III AR-5 - History
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Powers and Abilities
Vulcan is an Omega level mutant. ⎨] Δ] ⎩] He also is described to be "at least Omega Level" by Emma Frost, ⎖] "past Omega" by Professor X, Ζ] and "way past Omega" by Rachel Summers, Α] after being exposed to bursts of mutant energy. It was stated that the burst of mutant energy elevated him to Omega-Level. ⎘] Now confirmed by Charles Xavier to be an Omega-Level mutant. ⎩] ⎤]
Thus far, he has displayed the following abilities:
Energy Manipulation: Vulcan can psionically manipulate, control, and absorb vast amounts of energy as he sees fit. He can project radiation along the electromagnetic spectrum and even manipulate some exotic variants such as Cyclops optic blasts or Adam Warlock's magical energies.
- Energy Absorption: Vulcan could absorb virtually any type of energy and channel that energy through his blasts. It is unknown if Vulcan could absorb energy to achieve other effects to increase his strength, physiology, or the like. His energy absorption ability and his ability to wield energy had their limits. For example, his brother Havok was capable of easily overpowering him with his raw power and had him at his mercy after Vulcan threw him into a Sun. He described himself as a "High Order Energy Manipulator" ⎨] and an "Omega-Level Energy Manipulator". ⎡]
- Energy Blasts: Vulcan could generate light, heat, force, electricity, and other forms of energy and project them in the form of powerful energy blasts. He could generate these blasts from his hands as well as his eyes.
- Flight: Vulcan was able to fly and levitate using his powers. He was capable of interstellar flight (adding more energy to become increasingly fast, presumably sub-light). ⎘]
- Solid Energy Constructs/Simulated Telekinesis: Vulcan could solidify his energy into force-fields and other shapes. The effect of his energy constructs could be used to simulate a form of telekinesis by lifting and moving objects.
- Power Suppression: Vulcan could apparently use his powers to override those of another person's mutagenic aura by manipulating the electrical current of their brain, making them temporarily unable to use them. ⎪]
- Energy Detection: Vulcan was capable of detecting energy signatures from great distances when the power in question was potent. This included other mutants with energy powers usually at lesser ranges and starships at far greater rangers based on their star engines. ⎘]
- Energy Self-Sustenance: He also appeared capable of breathing in space as well as speaking by transmitting his voice as pure energy, though this ability seemed to be limited. If he didn't rest or find power other than his own, his reserve would leave him seemingly scarce until he did. ⎘]
- Healing: Also shown capable of healing from seemingly mortal injuries by manipulating his body's energy composition. ⎡] The full extent and speed of Vulcan's capacity to heal isn't known. The term healing is used in lieu of regeneration as Vulcan did not regenerate his eye or heal the scar inflicted on him by Gladiator.
Power Siphoning: Vulcan demonstrated the ability to siphon his opponents' powers. Vulcan was able to siphon Marvel Girl's power of telepathically accessing the psychic remnants of events that certain places held while he was suppressing her powers, it unknown whether or not he can siphon someones powers when that person is still able to access them. It is not known whether Vulcan permanently kept these powers or not, but it's unlikely. ⎫]
Psionic Resistance: Vulcan proved highly resistant to psionic attacks. The only such attack to be successful was performed by Marvel Girl after he had already lowered his defense in order to show the X-Men his memories of Krakoa. Ζ] In most cases he is able to use a telepath's own psionic energy to protect himself from the same.
Darwin, after merging with the remains of their two friends, converted himself to energy, keeping Vulcan alive. While Darwin was present in his body, Vulcan was able to simulate his teammates' powers. Ζ]
Geokinesis: The ability to manipulate large land masses of earth.
Extensive use of his powers over a long period of time could deplete his reserves though he does not need his reserves to manipulate energy.
Though extremely powerful and showing an aptitude for strategic thinking, his overconfidence often led him to defeat.
Ni'Var with defense satellites in 3189
Vulcan's earliest contacts with alien beings did not become legends, like in Earth's history. They were known events, and according to Spock, the aliens left Vulcan much wiser. ( TAS : " How Sharper Than a Serpent's Tooth ")
Early in its history, Vulcan had an aggressive, colonizing period, much like Earth but even more barbaric. ( TOS : " Balance of Terror ")
At some point in their history, the Vulcan people started to build giant statues at various locations of the planet, like the Fire Plains. ( ENT : " Home ", " The Forge " Star Trek: The Motion Picture )
As early as the mid-20th century, the planet Vulcan had contact with the Tellarites and, covertly, with Humans. By the late 21st or early 22nd century, Vulcans had established contact with the Humans, Cardassians, Klingons, Tholians, and Trill, among others. ( ENT : " Carbon Creek ", " Future Tense " DS9 : " Destiny ")
In 2152, there were over a million physicians on Vulcan. ( ENT : " Stigma ")
During the 22nd century, the death penalty was still common practice in Vulcan courts for a small number of offenses, including treason. ( ENT : " Kir'Shara ")
By the mid-22nd century, Vulcan had a history of conflict with Andoria, controlled the Coridanite government, and had exchanged ambassadors with Earth and Qo'noS, among others. After the Babel Crisis, Vulcan became a founding member of the Coalition of Planets before co-founding the Federation in 2161. ( ENT : " Broken Bow ", " Shadows of P'Jem ", " Demons ", " These Are the Voyages. ")
Very rare among the planet's residents, as she was Human rather than Vulcan, was Amanda Grayson, wife of Vulcan Ambassador Sarek. ( TOS : " The Naked Time ", " This Side of Paradise ", " Journey to Babel ", et al.)
As of late 2373, on the eve of the Dominion War, Vulcan's strategic importance for the Federation was on par with worlds like Andor, Berengaria, and Earth. When Kai Winn rhetorically asked Captain Sisko whether he would promise to sacrifice those strategic planets in order to protect Bajor from the Jem'Hadar, he denied this notion. ( DS9 : " In the Cards ")
During the early months of the Dominion War, the Fifth Fleet was fighting the Dominion near Vulcan. ( DS9 : " Favor the Bold ")
In 2374, Ishka was given special dispensation by Grand Nagus Zek to leave Ferenginar for Vulcan to have her ears raised. On her way back, she was captured by the Dominion. ( DS9 : " The Magnificent Ferengi ")
Later that same year, Betazed fell to the Dominion, and Major Kira noted that they were now in a position to threaten Vulcan. Shortly thereafter, Kira confirmed that the Dominion had been building up their forces on Betazed and that they would be able to launch an attack on Vulcan. ( DS9 : " In the Pale Moonlight ", " The Reckoning ")
In 2375, Julian Bashir complained to Miles O'Brien about his efforts to infiltrate Section 31, comparing them to "chasing phantoms from here (Deep Space 9) to Vulcan." ( DS9 : " Tacking Into the Wind ")
By the 32nd century Vulcan was home to both Vulcans and Romulans following reunification. The planet was renamed Ni'Var to symbolize the two cultures living together. ( DIS : " Unification III ")
In 3189, after assisting the Federation in a skirmish with the Emerald Chain warship Viridian and a commandeered USS Discovery, Ni'Var was considering rejoining the Federation. ( DIS : " That Hope Is You, Part 2 ")
In the mirror universe, Vulcan was conquered by the Terran Empire between 2063 and 2155. In that year Vulcans were among the slave races participating in a large-scale rebellion against the Empire, and T'Pol feared that if Jonathan Archer became the Terran emperor, he would use the USS Defiant to crush the uprising and lay waste to Vulcan. ( ENT : " In a Mirror, Darkly ", " In a Mirror, Darkly, Part II ")
Vulcan remained a dominion of the Empire by 2256, when Emperor Philippa Georgiou held the title Overlord of Vulcan. ( DIS : " Vaulting Ambition ")
In the alternate reality created by Nero's temporal incursion, the planet Vulcan was destroyed by the Narada in 2258, rendering the Vulcan race an "endangered species." ( Star Trek )
Vulcan III AR-5 - History
Welcome to the home of the No. 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron Association
Fulmina Regis Iusta
No 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron was based at Waddington from June 1937 to May 1943, equipped with the Handley Page Hampden and the Avro Lancaster, and again from August 1960 until December 1982 with Avro Vulcan Mks 1 and 2. The addition of the word (Rhodesia) on the Squadron badge reflected the contribution to the war effort by the citizens of Rhodesia during WW II.    The Squadron Motto translates as &lsquoThe King&rsquos Thunderbolts are Righteous&rsquo.    No 44 (Rhodesia) Squadron Association was formed at Waddington on 22 nd May 1982 in the middle of the Falklands conflict. However, the two events were not directly connected.
At the beginning of 1982 the decision was made that the final event in the history of the V-Force would be the simultaneous disbanding of Nos 44, 50 and 101 Squadrons at a major ceremony at Waddington on 1 st July 1982. From this decision the then membership of the Squadron decided to form an Association prior to the disbandment day. The date chosen was 22 nd May.    In the event, by late April 1982, when it was clear that aircraft and crews from all three Squadrons were becoming involved in combat operations in the South Atlantic, the 1 st July disbandment plans were quietly dropped and no further decisions were made until some time after hostilities ceased.
Three 44 Squadron Lancasters led by Colin Watt
A memorial stone to all those who gave their lives while on the squadron at Waddington was placed in the Remembrance Garden on High Dyke in 1986.    Plaques were erected in the churches of St Chad&rsquos at Dunholme and Great Steeping, near Spilsby, in 1989 to mark the Squadron&rsquos location from 1943 to the end of WWII.
Wreaths are laid at the memorial service at each reunion and again at each location on Remembrance Day in November of each year.
A close association has been formed with the William Farr School at Welton. When the Squadron left Waddington in May 1943 it reformed at RAF Dunholme Lodge, near Scampton. Today the School, which is built on the former administrative site of the airfield on the edge of Welton village, is a thriving Comprehensive supporting some 1300 pupils. In 2003, in concert with the Aircrew Association, 44 and 619 Squadron Associations, the Headmaster initiated a project to recognise the sacrifice made by allied airmen flying from RAF Dunholme Lodge. This resulted in a memorial and a Book of Remembrance being placed in the school, which records every individual 44 Squadron aircrew who lost his life while flying from Dunholme Lodge between May 1943 and September 1944. The number is huge, 498, as that period saw the Battle of Berlin and all the flying in support of the invasion of Normandy during the spring and summer of 1944. The Association presents an annual prize to the pupil adjudged by the School Council to have made the most significant contribution to the social wellbeing of the William Farr community. In 2005, the close association between RAF Waddington and the school resulted in the new Officers&rsquo Mess extension being named &lsquoThe Dunholme Lodge&rsquo.
In the recent past the Association was invited to join with members of the 619 Squadron Association in sharing a memorial at Dunholme Lodge Farm.    The memorial has a number of crew plaques including one commemorating John Nettleton&rsquos crew lost in July 1943.
The King&rsquos Thunderbolts - An Operational Record and Roll of Honour
No 44 Squadron&rsquos Operational History was compiled from accounts by air and ground crew who flew and worked on the Squadron during both World Wars. The annex contains many accounts of aircrew who survived bale outs and some who evaded capture while on the run in occupied territory. It recalls vividly the experiences of those unfortunate enough to spend much of the Second World War in prison camps.
Aliya Sa'ar 4.5
Israel launched the first Aliya class Sa'ar 4 missile craft in 1980. The INS Aliya was launched in August 1980, and the Geoula was launched in December of the same year. Both ships were manufactured by the Israel Shipyard in Haifa.
These missile ships were first used in service in the 1980's and 90's and are an improved version of the Sa'ar 4 Class Boats. The Sa'ar 4 Class Boats were reconstructed and capabilities upgraded- specifically its fire power system and its marine combat technological system. In the past few years' further reconstruction was implemented on these boats, specifically, its propulsion system which was updated with 4 advanced 396 Maybach engines. A portion of the fleet was built to accommodate helicopter landing strips and hangers
In 1988, Israel begin a moderization program to convert older Sa'ar 4 class ships to Sa'ar 4.5 class ships with upgraded weapons and navigation systems. The two Aliya class ships were part of this moderization program. In January 2004, Mexico announced the purchase of Israel's two Aliya class ships. Both ships were delivered to Mexico in August 2004.
The Aliya class missile craft was originally equipped with two missile systems: Harpoon and Gabriel II. The Harpoon missile system was developed by Boeing and serves as a long range surface to surface weapon. The Aliya class was equipped with two Harpoon missile batteries, each containing four launchers. The Harpoon has a maximum range of 130 km. Israel removed the Harpoon missile systems prior to selling the Ailya ships to Mexico.
The Gabriel II missile system is a short to medium range anti-ship weapon developed by Israeli Air Industries. The Gabriel II has a maximum range of 36 km Aliya class ships carry four Gabriel II launchers, which were included in the sale to Mexico.
The Aliya class ships were built with a 40 mm main gun, which was replaced with a Vulcan Phalanx Mk 15 25 mm CIWS weapon system in 1986. The Aliya class ship is one of the smallest crafts with a helicopter hanger, which is capable of holding an H-665 Dauphin.