7 April 1944

7 April 1944

7 April 1944

April 1944

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War at Sea

German submarines U-856 sunk off New York

Germany

Goebbels is appointed the administrator of Berlin



HistoryLink.org

On April 17, 1944, the three-member Board of Chelan County Commissioners, having verified the results of a vote by the adult citizens of Entiat, approves an "Order of Incorporation" verifying that the town has complied with the relevant laws and "is hereby incorporated as a Municipal Corporation of the fourth class and the same to be known and belonging under the name and style of the Town of Entiat . " ("Order for Incorporation"). The order becomes fully effective on April 25, 1944, at 2:45 p.m. when it is filed in the office of Washington state's Secretary of State. Thirty-six years later, the Entiat city council will vote to convert the town's status to a Non-Charter Code City, a classification that did not exist when it first incorporated in 1944.

Incorporation

At the time of the vote for incorporation, Entiat was located on the second of what would eventually become three different sites. From 1897 to the mid-1910s, the first town of Entiat was on the north bank of the Entiat River about one-half mile upstream from its confluence with the Columbia River. That townsite suffered from repeated fires, and when it became known that the Great Northern Railway was planning to run its tracks closer to the shore of the Columbia, the townspeople decided to relocate east to a tract of land on the west bank of the river. They could not anticipate that nearly 50 years later they would have to move again, forced out by the rising waters behind Rocky Reach Dam.

The first move was essentially complete by 1915, and the townspeople went about their business. Nearly 30 years later, in 1944, a majority of its citizens voted to incorporate Entiat. After the measure was passed by the the voters, the petition for incorporation was submitted to the Chelan County Board of Commissioner for its approval and the issuance of an Order of Incorporation. In approving the application, the commissioners noted that "the election was held on the 10th day of April, 1944, and the same was conducted in the manner and form required by law." Although no precise tally is given, "a majority of the votes cast were for incorporation" ("Order for Incorporation").

In the same election, the voters of Entiat chose those of their number who would be entrusted to lead the town's government, assuming incorporation was approved. The highest vote-getter for mayor was Will E. Risk (1886-1966), owner of the Will Risk Market. T. R. Hendershott (1903-1975) was elected town treasurer. Entiat adopted a mayor-council form of government, and five men were chosen to serve on the first town council. They were: William A. Roundy (1889-1978), who first came to the Entiat Valley in 1902 Dell Rothrock (1893-?), another longtime valley resident, who had been both a dairyman and a fruit grower Einar Moe (1885-1960), who moved to the Entiat Valley with his parents in 1899 Arthur Vradenburg (1893-1974), an Illinois native who moved to Entiat in the 1930s and L. B. Hicks (1889-1963), who had operated Hicks Garage in Entiat for many years.

Entiat's government had much to do during its first year, and the council enacted no fewer than 21 ordinances in the remaining eight and a half months of 1944. Some laws were ministerial -- appointing a town clerk, fixing the times for council meetings, adopting a corporate seal, and appointing committees to handle specific issues. Other ordinances were regulatory -- setting the time for the daily closure of beer halls regulating outdoor signs, vending machines, pinballs, and games of chance and establishing a licensing scheme for businesses in the town.

Two 1944 ordinances defined specific crimes -- vagrancy and assault and battery -- and set penalties for violations. The Entiat Times was designated the town's official newspaper, a curfew was imposed on those under age 16, and the use of firearms in the town was regulated, as was trash burning. The final ordinance passed in 1944, Number 21, established the finalized town budget for the following year.

A Change in Status

Washington laws on the classification of cities and towns and how to create them have changed over the years. Today (2020) there are four categories:

First Class Cities, of which there are currently 10 in Washington.

Second Class Cities, of which there are five in the state.

Towns, of which there are 68 in the state. Under the law in effect in 1944, the designation "town" was reserved for Municipal Corporations of the fourth class. This category was later abandoned it is now impossible to incorporate as a town, as Entiat did in 1944, but those that did so are permitted to retain that status if they choose.

Code Cities, the most common form, numbered 197 in Washington in 2020. The classification was designed to provide broad statutory home-rule authority in matters of local concern. Any unincorporated area having a population of at least 1,500 may incorporate as a code city, and any city or town, regardless of size, that was previously incorporated under applicable laws may reorganize as a code city without approval from the commissioners of the county in which it is located.

Unclassified Cities is a category left over from pre-statehood days, and there is but one in the state -- Waitsburg, in Walla Walla County.

In the early 1960s, Entiat had to relocate again when Rocky Reach Dam was completed a few miles south on the Columbia River and its reservoir, Lake Entiat, filled. This disruption was worse than that caused by the move more than 45 years earlier, and the town went through an extended period of retrenchment and a loss of population.

In 1980, when the situation had stabilized somewhat, the Entiat city council passed Ordinance 252 to change its status to a Non-charter Code City. Now secure in its location, the town's population has rebounded, from 357 in 1960 to 1,290 in 2020. Entiat is recognized as a heritage community founded during Washington's territorial period of 1852-1889, and since 2001 has been designated as a Tree City USA by the Arbor Day Foundation.

Association of Washington Cities

Logo, City of Entiat

First town of Entiat, ca. 1910, Columbia River in distance

Courtesy Entiat Community Historical Society

Second Entiat, main street, ca. 1930s

Photo by Ellis, from Under the Guard of Ole Tyee

Cover page, Entiat's Order for Incorporation, April 25, 1944

Courtesy Washington State Secretary of State

Entiat, looking south toward Rocky Reach Dam, ca. 2019

Courtesy Chelan Douglas Regional Port Authority

Looking north, Entiat City Park, Lake Entiat (Rocky Reach Dam reservoir)


U.S.S. HANCOCK

USS Hancock was commissioned in 1944, and was an aircraft carrier of the Essex-class. The ship was built in Massachusetts and then sent to the Pacific in the summer and was involved in combat almost right away. She helped with raids on the Philippines, the Ryukyus and Formosa, and was damaged by a typhoon and a suicide plane in the end of 1944.

In 1945, the ship helped with the Luzon landings and was part of the raid in the South China Sea performed by Task Force 38. There was an accident shortly into the deployment that killed 50 service men aboard the vessel and injured dozens more. The following day, USS Hancock launched attack planes on Okinawa.

In 1945, the ship was again damaged by a suicide plane that killed 62 crewmen and prompted a return to the United States for repairs in a shipyard. Hancock was able to return to the Pacific and help throughout the final days of World War II, and then took a role as a transit vessel for servicemen and aircraft. For eight years, USS Hancock was inactive until 1954 when she was recommissioned and modernized to deploy to the Far East, where she spent two years. After that, the ship became a part of the Seventh Fleet in the Pacific, helped in the Vietnam War, and decommissioned and was sold for scrap in 1976.


Arnost_Rosin,_Josef_Weiss,_From left, Arnost Rosin, Josef Weiss of the Bratislava Ministry of Health, and Rudolf Vrba, in Bratislava, now Slovakia, June-July 1944. Vrba had escaped from Auschwitz on 7 April 1944, Rosin on 24 May.


View paintings by survivor Jan Komski.

'aaRON'
by Geoffrey Laurence

a fate beheld

Remember. Zachor. Sich Erinnern.

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April 19th, 1944 is a Wednesday. It is the 110th day of the year, and in the 16th week of the year (assuming each week starts on a Monday), or the 2nd quarter of the year. There are 30 days in this month. 1944 is a leap year, so there are 366 days in this year. The short form for this date used in the United States is 4/19/1944, and almost everywhere else in the world it's 19/4/1944.

This site provides an online date calculator to help you find the difference in the number of days between any two calendar dates. Simply enter the start and end date to calculate the duration of any event. You can also use this tool to determine how many days have passed since your birthday, or measure the amount of time until your baby's due date. The calculations use the Gregorian calendar, which was created in 1582 and later adopted in 1752 by Britain and the eastern part of what is now the United States. For best results, use dates after 1752 or verify any data if you are doing genealogy research. Historical calendars have many variations, including the ancient Roman calendar and the Julian calendar. Leap years are used to match the calendar year with the astronomical year. If you're trying to figure out the date that occurs in X days from today, switch to the Days From Now calculator instead.


Contents

Fall of Antwerp Edit

On 4 April 1585, during the Spanish siege of Antwerp, a fortified bridge named "Puente Farnesio" [a] had been built by the Spanish on the River Scheldt. The Dutch launched four large hellburners (explosive fire ships filled with gunpowder and rocks) to destroy the bridge and thereby isolate the city from reinforcement. Three of the hellburners failed to reach the target, but one containing 4 tons of explosive [4] struck the bridge. It did not explode immediately, which gave time for some curious Spaniards to board it. There was then a devastating blast that killed 800 Spaniards on the bridge, [5] throwing bodies, rocks and pieces of metal a distance of several kilometres. A small tsunami arose in the river, the ground shook for kilometres around and a large, dark cloud covered the area. The blast was felt as far as 35 kilometres (22 mi) away in Ghent, where windows vibrated.

Wanggongchang Explosion Edit

Around nine in the morning of 30 May 1626, an explosion at the Wanggongchang Armory in Ming-era Beijing, China, destroyed almost everything within an area of two square kilometres (0.77 sq mi) surrounding the site. The estimated death toll was 20,000. About half of Beijing, from Xuanwumen Gate in the South to today's West Chang'an Boulevard in the North, was affected. Guard units stationed as far away as Tongzhou, nearly 40 kilometres (25 mi) away, reported hearing the blast and feeling the earth tremble. [6]

Great Torrington, Devon Edit

On 16 February 1646, 80 barrels (5.72 tons) of gunpowder were accidentally ignited by a stray spark during the Battle of Torrington in the English Civil War, destroying the church in which the magazine was located and killing several Royalist guards and a large number of Parliamentarian prisoners who were being held there. The explosion effectively ended the battle, bringing victory to the Parliamentarians. It narrowly missed killing the Parliamentarian commander, Sir Thomas Fairfax. Great damage was caused.

Delft Explosion Edit

About 40 tonnes of gunpowder exploded on 12 October 1654, destroying much of the city of Delft in the Netherlands. Over a hundred people were killed and thousands were injured.

Destruction of the Parthenon Edit

On 26 September 1687, the Parthenon, hitherto intact, was partially destroyed when an Ottoman ammunition bunker inside was struck by a Venetian mortar. 300 Turkish soldiers were killed in the explosion.

Fort Augusta Explosion Edit

Fort Augusta was originally an ocean side fortress in Kingston, Jamaica built by the English in the 1740s to provide the main defense for Kingston Harbour’s west side. In 1763 lightning struck the fort and its three thousand barrels of gunpowder causing an explosion that broke windows 17 miles away and killed three hundred people. The shocks created a crater which had to be filled before reconstruction could begin.

Brescia Explosion Edit

In 1769, the Bastion of San Nazaro in Brescia, Italy was struck by lightning. The resulting fire ignited 90 tonnes of gunpowder being stored, and the subsequent explosion destroyed one-sixth of the city and killed 3,000 people.

Leiden gunpowder disaster Edit

On 12 January 1807, a ship carrying hundreds of barrels of black powder exploded in the town of Leiden in the Kingdom of Holland. The disaster killed 151 people and destroyed over 200 buildings in the town.

Siege of Almeida Edit

On 26 August 1810, in Almeida, Portugal, during the Peninsular War phase of the Napoleonic Wars, French Grande Armée forces commanded by Marshal André Masséna laid siege to the garrison the garrison was commanded by British Brigadier General William Cox. A shell made a chance hit on the medieval castle, within the star fortress, which was being used as the powder magazine. It ignited 4,000 prepared charges, which in turn ignited 68,000 kilograms (68 t) of black powder and 1,000,000 musket cartridges. The ensuing explosions killed 600 defenders and wounded 300. The medieval castle was razed to the ground and sections of the defences were damaged. Unable to reply to the French cannonade without gunpowder, Cox was forced to capitulate the following day with the survivors of the blast and 100 cannon. The French losses during the operation were 58 killed and 320 wounded.

Fort York magazine explosion Edit

On 27 April 1813, the magazine of Fort York in York, Ontario (now Toronto) was fired by retreating British troops during an American invasion. Thirty thousand pounds (14,000 kg) of gunpowder and thirty thousand cartridges exploded sending debris, cannon and musket balls over the American troops. Thirty-eight soldiers, including General Zebulon Pike, the American commander, were killed and 222 were wounded.

Battle of Negro Fort Edit

On 27 July 1816, a fort built in the War of 1812 by the British Army at Prospect Bluff in Spanish West Florida, and occupied by about 330 maroons, Seminole, and Choctaw, was attacked by Andrew Jackson's navy as part of the First Seminole War. There was an exchange of cannon fire the first red-hot cannonball fired by the navy entered the fort's powder magazine, which exploded. [7] The explosion, heard more than 100 miles (160 km) away, [8] destroyed the entire post which was initially supplied with "three thousand stand of arms, from five to six hundred barrels of powders and a great quantity of fixed ammunition, shot[s], shells". [9] About 270 men, women and children lay dead. [10] General Edmund P. Gaines later said that the "explosion was awful and the scene horrible beyond description." Reports mention no American military casualties. [7]

Siege of Multan Edit

On 30 December 1848, in Multan during the Second Anglo-Sikh War, a British mortar shell hit 180 tonnes of gunpowder stored in a mosque, causing an explosion and many casualties. [11]

Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead Edit

The 6 October 1854 great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead, UK, was occasioned by an explosion of a bond warehouse on the quayside, which rained masonry and flaming timbers across wide areas of both cities, and left a crater with a depth of 40 feet (12 m) and 50 feet (15 m) in diameter. The explosion was heard at locations up to 40 miles (64 km) away. 53 people died, and 400 to 500 were injured. [12]

Agios Ioannis Church Explosion Edit

On 6 November 1856 lightning struck 3,000 to 6,000 hundredweight (roughly 150-300 tonnes) of gunpowder stored by the Ottoman Empire in the bell tower of the Agios Ioannis church near the Palace of the Grand Master of the Knights of Rhodes in Rhodes, triggering a blast that destroyed large parts of the city and killed 4,000 people. [13] [14]

The Battle of the Crater during the siege of Petersburg, Virginia Edit

During the American Civil War at 4:44 a.m. on July 30, 1864 the Union Army of the Potomac besieging the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia at Petersburg, Virginia detonated a mine containing 320 kegs of gunpowder, totaling 8,000 pounds (3,600 kg) under the confederate entrenchments. The explosion killed 278 Confederate soldiers of the 18th and 22nd South Carolina regiments [15] and created a crater 170 feet (52 m) long, 100 to 120 feet (30 to 37 m) wide, and at least 30 feet (9 m) deep. After the explosion, attacking Union forces charged into the crater instead of around its lip. Trapped in the crater of their own making, the Union forces were easy targets for the Confederate soldiers once they recovered from the shock of the explosion. Union forces suffered 3798 casualties (killed, wounded, or captured) vs 1491 total losses for the Confederates. The Union forces failed to break through the Confederate defenses despite the success of the mine. The Battle of the Crater (as it came to be called) was thus a victory for the Confederacy. However, the siege continued.

Fort Fisher Magazine explosion Edit

In 1865 after the Union Army captured Fort Fisher, North Carolina, the accidental explosion of the fort magazine resulted in an estimated 200 persons killed.

Mobile magazine explosion Edit

On 25 May 1865, in Mobile, Alabama, in the United States, an ordnance depot (magazine) exploded, killing 300 people. This event occurred just six weeks after the end of the American Civil War, during the occupation of the city by victorious Federal troops.

Flood Rock explosion Edit

On 10 October 1885 in New York City, the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers detonated 300,000 pounds (150 t) of explosives on Flood Rock, annihilating the island, in order to clear the Hell Gate tidal strait for the benefit of East River shipping traffic. [17] The explosion sent a geyser of water 250 feet in the air [18] the blast was felt as far away as Princeton, New Jersey. [17] The explosion has been described as "the largest planned explosion before testing began for the atomic bomb". [18] Rubble from the detonation was used in 1890 to fill the gap between Great Mill Rock and Little Mill Rock, merging the two into a single island, Mill Rock. [17]

Explosion of steamship Cabo Machichaco Edit

On 3 November 1893, in Santander, Spain, the steamship Cabo Machichaco caught fire when she was docked. The ship was loaded with sulfuric acid and 51 tons of dynamite from Galdácano, Basque Country, but authorities were unaware of this. Firefighters and crewmen from other ships boarded Cabo Machichaco to help fight the fire, while local dignitaries and a large crowd of people watched from the shore. At 5 pm, a huge explosion destroyed nearby buildings and created a huge wave that washed over the seafront. Pieces of iron and rubbish were thrown as far as Peñacastillo, 8 km (5 mi) away, where a person was killed by the falling debris. 590 people were killed, and between 500 and 2,000 were injured. [19] [20]

Braamfontein explosion Edit

On 19 February 1896, an explosives train at Braamfontein station in Johannesburg, loaded with between 56 and 60 tons of blasting gelatine for the gold mines of the Witwatersrand and having been standing for three and a half days in searing heat, was struck by a shunting train. The load exploded, leaving a crater in the Braamfontein rail yard 60 metres (200 ft) long, 50 metres (160 ft) wide and 8 metres (26 ft) deep. The explosion was heard up to 200 kilometres (120 mi) away. 75 people were killed, and more than 200 injured. Surrounding suburbs were destroyed, and roughly 3,000 people lost their homes. Almost every window in Johannesburg was broken. [21]

USS Maine Edit

On 15 February 1898, more than 5 tons of gunpowder exploded on the USS Maine in the Havana Harbor, Spanish Cuba, killing 266 on board. Spanish investigations found that it was likely started by spontaneous combustion of the adjacent coal bunker or accidental ignition of volatile gases. The 1898 US Navy investigation laid the blame on a mine, which led to public outrage in the United States and support for the Spanish–American War. [22]

DuPont Powder Mill explosion, Fontanet, Indiana Edit

On 15 October 1907, approximately 40,000 kegs of powder exploded in Fontanet, Indiana, killing between 50 and 80 people, and destroying the town. The sound of the explosion was heard over 200 miles (320 km) away, with damage occurring to buildings 25 miles (40 km) away. [23]

DuPont Powder Mill Explosion, Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin Edit

On 9 March 1911, the village of Pleasant Prairie and neighboring town of Bristol, 4 miles away, were leveled by the explosion of five magazines holding 300 tons of dynamite, 105,000 kegs of black blasting powder, and five railroad cars filled with dynamite housed at a 190-acre DuPont blasting powder plant. A crater 100 ft deep was left where the plant stood. Several hundred people were injured. The plant was closed at the time, so deaths were light, with only three plant employees being killed, E. S. "Old Man" Thompson, Clarence Brady and Joseph Flynt, and Elgin, Illinois resident Alice Finch, who died of shock. Most buildings in a 5-mile radius were rendered flat or uninhabitable. The explosion was widely felt within a radius of 130 miles, and largely thought to be an earthquake. Residents in nearby Lake County, Illinois saw the fireball and remembering the Peshtigo fire fled their houses, jumping into Lake Michigan. Police in Chicago scoured the streets, looking for the site of a bombing. Windows were shattered as far away as Madison, Wisconsin, a distance of some 85 miles. The explosion was reportedly heard up to 500 miles away. A DuPont spokesman was reported on as being perplexed by the coverage of the blast, quoted as saying "explosions occur every day in steel mills, flouring mills and grain elevators with hardly a line in the paper." [24] [25] [26]

Alum Chine explosion Edit

Alum Chine was a Welsh freighter (out of Cardiff) carrying 343 tons of dynamite for use during construction of the Panama Canal. She was anchored off Hawkins Point, near the entrance to Baltimore Harbor in Baltimore, Maryland. She exploded on 7 March 1913, killing over 30, injuring about 60, and destroying a tugboat and two barges. Most accounts describe two distinct explosions. [27]

HMS Princess Irene at Sheerness Edit

On 27 May 1915, the converted minelayer HMS Princess Irene suffered a blast. Wreckage was thrown up to 20 miles (30 km), a collier ship one-half mile (800 m) away had its crane blown off and a crew member killed by a fragment weighing 70 pounds (30 kg). A child ashore was killed by another fragment. A case of butter was found six miles (10 km) away. A total of 352 people were killed but one crew member survived, with severe burns. The ship had been loaded with 300 naval mines containing more than 150 tons of high explosive. An inquiry blamed faulty priming, possibly by untrained personnel.

Faversham explosion Edit

On 2 April 1916, an explosion ripped through the gunpowder mill at Uplees, near Faversham, Kent, when 200 tons of TNT ignited. 105 people died in the explosion. The munitions factory was next to the Thames estuary, and the explosion was heard across the estuary as far away as Norwich, Great Yarmouth, and Southend-on-Sea, where domestic windows were blown out and two large plate-glass shop windows shattered.

Battle of Jutland Edit

On 31 May 1916, three British Grand Fleet battlecruisers were destroyed by cordite deflagrations initiated by armour-piercing shells fired by the Imperial German Navy's High Seas Fleet. At 16:02 HMS Indefatigable was cut in two by deflagration of the forward magazine and sank immediately with all but two of her crew of 1,019. German eyewitness reports and the testimony of modern divers suggest all her magazines exploded. The wreck is now a debris field. At 16:25 HMS Queen Mary was cut in two by detonation of the forward magazine and sank with all but 21 of her crew of 1,283. As the rear section capsized it also exploded. At 18:30 HMS Invincible was cut in two by detonation of the midships magazine and sank in 90 seconds with all but six of her crew. 1,026 men died, including Rear Admiral Hood. An armoured cruiser, HMS Defence, was a fourth ship to suffer an explosive deflagration at Jutland with at least 893 men killed. The rear magazine was seen to detonate followed by more explosions as the cordite flash travelled along an ammunition passage beneath her broadside guns. Eyewitness reports suggest that HMS Black Prince may also have suffered an explosion as she was lost during the night action with all hands — 857 men. British reports say she was seen to blow up. German reports speak of the ship being overwhelmed at close range and sinking. Finally, during the confused night actions in the early hours of 1 June, the German pre-dreadnought SMS Pommern was hit by one, or possibly two, torpedoes from the British destroyer HMS Onslaught, which detonated one of Pommern ' s 17-centimetre (6.7 in) gun magazines. The resulting explosion broke the ship in half and killed the entire crew of 839 men.

Mines on the first day of the Somme Edit

On the morning of 1 July 1916, a series of 19 mines of varying sizes was blown to start the Battle of the Somme. The explosions constituted what was then the loudest human-made sound in history, and could be heard in London. The largest single charge was the Lochnagar mine south of La Boisselle with 60,000 lb (27 t) of ammonal explosive. The mine created a crater 300 ft (90 m) across and 90 ft (30 m) deep, with a lip 15 ft (5 m) high. The crater is known as Lochnagar Crater after the trench from where the main tunnel was started.

Black Tom explosion Edit

On 30 July 1916, sabotage by German agents caused 1,000 short tons (910 t) of explosives bound for Europe, along with another 50 short tons (45 t) on Johnson Barge No. 17, to explode in Jersey City, New Jersey, a major dock in New York Harbor. There were few deaths, but about 100 injuries. Damage included buildings on Ellis Island, parts of the Statue of Liberty, and much of Jersey City.

Silvertown explosion Edit

On 19 January 1917, parts of Silvertown in East London were devastated by a TNT explosion at the Brunner-Mond munitions factory. 73 people died and hundreds were injured. The blast was felt across London and Essex and was heard over 100 mi (160 km) away, with the resulting fires visible for 30 mi (50 km).

Quickborn explosion Edit

On 10 February 1917, a chain reaction in an ammunition plant "Explosivstoffwerk Thorn" in Quickborn-Heide (northern Germany) killed at least 115 people (some sources say over 200 people), mostly young female workers. [28] [29]

Plzeň explosion Edit

Škoda Works in Bolevec, Plzeň, was the biggest ammunition plant in Austria-Hungary. A series of explosions on 25 May 1917 killed 300 workers. [30] This event inspired Karel Čapek to write the novel Krakatit (1922).

Mines in the Battle of Messines Edit

On 7 June 1917, a series of large British mines, containing a total of over 455 tons of ammonal explosive, was detonated beneath German lines on the Messines-Wytschaete ridge. The explosions created 19 large craters, killed about 10,000 German soldiers, and were heard as far away as London and Dublin. Determining the power of explosions is difficult, but this was probably the largest planned explosion in history until the 1945 Trinity atomic weapon test, and the largest non-nuclear planned explosion until the 1947 British Heligoland detonation (below). The Messines mines detonation killed more people than any other non-nuclear man-made explosion in history.

Halifax explosion Edit

On 6 December 1917, SS Imo and SS Mont-Blanc collided in the harbour of Halifax, Nova Scotia. Mont-Blanc carried 2,653 tonnes of various explosives, mostly picric acid. After the collision the ship caught fire, drifted into town, and exploded. 1,950 people were killed and much of Halifax was destroyed. An evaluation of the explosion's force puts it at 2.9 kilotons of TNT (12 TJ). [31] Halifax historian Jay White in 1994 concluded "Halifax Harbour remains unchallenged in overall magnitude as long as five criteria are considered together: number of casualties, force of blast, radius of devastation, quantity of explosive material, and total value of property destroyed."

Chilwell Munitions Factory Explosion Edit

On 1 July 1918, the National Shell Filling Factory No 6 (Chilwell, near Nottingham, England) was partly destroyed when 8 tons of TNT exploded in the dry mix part of the factory. Approximately 140 workers – mainly young women, known as the 'Chilwell Canaries' because contact with TNT turned their skin yellow – were killed, though the true number has never been satisfactorily established. An unknown number of people were injured, though estimates place the figure around 250. Because of the sensitivity of the subject, reports of the explosion were censored until after the Armistice. The cause of the explosion was never officially established, though present-day authorities on explosives consider it was due to a combination of factors: an exceptionally hot day, high production demands and lax safety precautions.

Split Rock explosion Edit

On 2 July 1918, a munitions factory near Syracuse, New York, exploded after a mixing motor in the main TNT building overheated. The fire rapidly spread through the wooden structure of the main factory. Approximately 1–3 tons of TNT were involved in the blast, which levelled the structure and killed 50 workers (conflicting reports mention 52 deaths).

T. A. Gillespie Company Shell Loading Plant explosion Edit

On 4 October 1918, an ammunition plant — operated by the T. A. Gillespie Company and located in the Morgan area of Sayreville in Middlesex County, New Jersey — exploded and triggered a fire. The subsequent series of explosions continued for three days. The facility, said to be one of the largest in the world at the time, was destroyed, along with more than 300 buildings forcing reconstruction of South Amboy and Sayreville. Over 100 people died in this accident. [32] Over a three-day period, a total of 12,000,000 pounds (5,400 t) of explosives were destroyed. [33]

Oppau explosion Edit

On 21 September 1921, a BASF silo filled with 4,500 tonnes of fertilizer exploded, killing around 560, largely destroying Oppau, Germany, and causing damage more than 30 km (19 mi) away.

Nixon Nitration Works disaster Edit

On 1 March 1924, an explosion destroyed a building in Nixon, New Jersey, used for processing ammonium nitrate. The explosion touched off fires in surrounding buildings in the Nixon Nitration Works that contained other highly flammable materials. The disaster killed 20 and destroyed 40 buildings.

Leeudoringstad explosion Edit

On 17 July 1932, a train carrying 320 to 330 tons of dynamite from the De Beers factory at Somerset West to the Witwatersrand exploded and flattened the small town of Leeudoringstad in South Africa. Five people were killed and 11 injured in the sparsely-populated area.

Neunkirchen gas detonation Edit

On 10 February 1933, a gas storage in Neunkirchen, Territory of the Saar Basin, detonated during maintenance work. The detonation could be heard at 124 miles (200 km) distance. The death toll was 68, and 160 were injured.

New London School explosion Edit

On 18 March 1937, a natural gas leak caused an explosion, destroying the London School of New London, Texas. The disaster killed more than 295 students and teachers, making it the deadliest school disaster in American history. Letters of support were sent from around the world, including one telegram from Adolf Hitler.

Hirakata ammunition dump explosion Edit

On 1 March 1939, Warehouse No. 15 of the Imperial Japanese Army's Kinya ammunition dump in Hirakata, Osaka Prefecture, Japan, suffered a catastrophic explosion, the sound of which could be heard throughout the Keihan area. Additional explosions followed over the next few days as the depot burned, for a total of 29 explosions by 3 March. Japanese officials reported that 94 people died, 604 were injured, and 821 houses were damaged, with 4,425 households in all suffering the effects of the explosions. [34] [35]

Pluton Edit

On 13 September 1939, the French cruiser Pluton exploded and sank while offloading naval mines in Casablanca, in French Morocco. The explosion killed 186 men, destroyed three nearby armed trawlers, and damaged nine more.

Hercules Powder Plant Edit

On 12 September 1940, nearly 300,000 pounds of gunpowder exploded at the Hercules Company in the Kenvil area of Roxbury, New Jersey. At least 51 people were killed, over 100 injured, and twenty buildings flattened. It remains unclear if this was an industrial accident, or sabotage by pro-IRA or pro-Nazi factions.

SS Clan Fraser Edit

On 6 April 1941, SS Clan Fraser was moored in Piraeus Harbour, Greece. Three German Luftwaffe bombs struck her, igniting 350 tonnes of TNT a nearby barge carried a further 100 tonnes which also detonated. Royal Navy ships HMS Ajax and HMS Calcutta attempted to tow her out of harbour and succeeded in getting beyond the breakwater, after the tow line had broken three times. She then exploded, leveling large areas of the port. This was witnessed by post-war author Roald Dahl, who was piloting a Hawker Hurricane fighter plane for the Royal Air Force.

HMS Hood Edit

On 24 May 1941, HMS Hood sank in three minutes after the stern magazine detonated during the Battle of the Denmark Strait. The wreck has been located in three pieces, suggesting additional detonation of a forward magazine. There were only three survivors from the crew of 1,418.

HMS Barham Edit

On 25 November 1941, HMS Barham was sunk by the German submarine U-331 862 crew lost. The main magazines explosion was captured on film by a Pathé News cameraman on board the nearby HMS Valiant.

Smederevo Fortress explosion Edit

During World War II, German invading forces in Serbia used Smederevo Fortress for ammunition storage. On 5 June 1941 it exploded, [36] blasting through the entirety of Smederevo and reaching settlements as far as 10 km (6.2 mi) away. Much of the southern wall of the fortress was destroyed, the nearby railway station, packed with people, was blown away, and most of the buildings in the city were turned into debris. Around 2,500 people died in the explosion, and half of the inhabitants were injured [37] (approximately 5,500).

SS Surrey Edit

On the night of 10 June 1942, the German submarine U-68 torpedoed the 8,600-ton British freighter Surrey in the Caribbean Sea. Five thousand tons of dynamite in the cargo detonated after the ship sank. The shock wave lifted U-68 out of the water as if she had suffered a torpedo hit, and both diesel engines and the gyrocompass were disabled. [38]

SS Hatimura Edit

On the night of 3 November 1942, torpedoes detonated the ammunition cargo of the 6,690-ton British freighter Hatimura. Both the freighter and attacking submarine U-132 were destroyed by the explosion. [39]

Naples Caterina Costa explosion Edit

On 28 March 1943, in the port of Naples, a fire broke out on Caterina Costa, an 8,060-ton motor ship with arms and supplies (1,000 tons of gas, 900 tons of explosives, tanks and others) the fire became uncontrollable, causing a devastating explosion. A large number of buildings around were destroyed or badly damaged. Some ships nearby caught fire and sank, and hot parts of the ship and tanks were thrown great distances. More than 600 dead and over 3000 wounded.

Bombay Docks explosion Edit

On 14 April 1944, SS Fort Stikine, carrying around 1,400 long tons (1,400 t) of explosives (among other goods), caught fire and exploded, killing around 800 people.

Bergen Harbour explosion Edit

On 20 April 1944, the Dutch steam trawler ST Voorbode, loaded with 124,000 kilograms (124 t) of explosives, caught fire and exploded at the quay in the centre of Bergen. The air pressure from the explosion and the tsunami that followed flattened whole neighbourhoods near the harbour. Fires broke out in the aftermath, leaving 5,000 people homeless. 160 people were killed, and 5,000 wounded.

SS Paul Hamilton Edit

On 20 April 1944, the Liberty ship SS Paul Hamilton was attacked 30 miles (48 km) off Cape Bengut near Algiers by Luftwaffe bombers. The ship and 580 personnel aboard were destroyed within 30 seconds when the cargo of bombs and explosives detonated.

West Loch disaster Edit

On 21 May 1944, an ammunition handling accident in Pearl Harbor destroyed six LSTs and three LCTs. Four more LSTs, ten tugs, and a net tender were damaged. Eleven buildings were destroyed ashore and nine more damaged. Nearly 400 military personnel were killed.

Port Chicago disaster Edit

On 17 July 1944, in Port Chicago, California, SS E. A. Bryan exploded while loading ammunition bound for the Pacific, with an estimated 4,606 short tons (4,178 t) of high explosive (HE), incendiary bombs, depth charges, and other ammunition. Another 429 short tons (389 t) waiting on nearby rail cars also exploded. The total explosive content is described as between 1,600 [40] and 2,136 [41] tons of TNT. 320 were killed instantly, another 390 wounded. Most of the killed and wounded were African American enlisted men. Following the explosion, 258 fellow sailors refused to load ordnance 50 of these, called the "Port Chicago 50", were convicted of mutiny even though they were willing to carry out any order that did not involve loading ordnance under unsafe conditions. [42]

Cleveland East Ohio Gas explosion Edit

On 20 October 1944, a liquefied natural gas storage tank in Cleveland, Ohio, split and leaked its contents, which spread, caught fire, and exploded. A half hour later, another tank exploded as well. The explosions destroyed 1 square mile (2.6 km 2 ), killed 130, and left 600 homeless.

USS Mount Hood Edit

On 10 November 1944, USS Mount Hood exploded in Seeadler Harbor at Manus Island in Australian New Guinea, with an estimated 3,800 tons of ordnance material on board. Mushrooming smoke rose to 7,000 feet (2,100 m), obscuring the surrounding area for a radius of approximately 500 yards (460 m). Mount Hood ' s former position was revealed by a trench in the ocean floor 1,000 feet (300 m) long, 200 feet (61 m) wide, and 30 to 40 feet (9.1 to 12.2 m) deep. The largest remaining piece of the hull was found in the trench and measured 16 by 10 feet (4.9 by 3.0 m). All 296 men aboard the ship were killed. USS Mindanao was 350 yards (320 m) away and suffered extensive damage, with 23 crew killed, and 174 injured. Several other nearby ships were also damaged or destroyed. Altogether 372 were killed and 371 injured in the blast.

RAF Fauld explosion Edit

On 27 November 1944, the RAF Ammunition Depot at Fauld, Staffordshire, became the site of the largest explosion in the UK, when 3,700 tonnes of bombs stored in underground bunkers covering 17,000 m 2 (180,000 sq ft) exploded en masse. The explosion was caused by bombs being taken out of store, primed for use, and replaced with the detonators still installed when unused. The crater was 40 [43] metres (130 ft) deep and covered 5 hectares. The death toll was approximately 78, including RAF personnel, six Italian prisoners of war, civilian employees, and local people. In the similar Port Chicago disaster (above), about half the weight of bombs was high explosive. If the same is true of the Fauld Explosion, it would have been equivalent to about 2 kilotons of TNT.

Japanese aircraft carrier Unryu Edit

On 19 December 1944, Japanese aircraft carrier Unryu disintegrated when torpedoes fired by USS Redfish detonated the forward magazine.

SS John Burke Edit

On December 28, 1944, while transporting ammunition to Mindoro, Philippines, the Liberty ship SS John Burke was hit by a Japanese kamikaze aircraft, and disintegrated in a tremendous explosion with the loss of all hands. [44]

Japanese battleship Yamato Edit

On 7 April 1945, after six hours of battle, Japanese battleship Yamato's magazine exploded as she sank, resulting in a mushroom cloud rising six kilometres (3.7 mi) above the wreck, and which could be seen from Kyushu, 160 kilometres (99 mi) away. 3,055 crewmen were killed.

Trinity calibration test Edit

On 7 May 1945, 100 tons of TNT was stacked on a wooden tower and exploded to test the instrumentation prior to the test of the first atomic bomb.

Futamata Tunnel Explosion Edit

On 12 November 1945, when the occupation troops were trying to dispose of 530 tons of ammunition, there was an explosion in a tunnel in Soeda, Fukuoka Prefecture, Kyushu Island. According to a confirmed official report, 147 local residents were killed and 149 people injured. [45] [ better source needed ]

Texas City Disaster Edit

On 16 April 1947, SS Grandcamp, loaded with ammonium nitrate, exploded in port at Texas City, Texas. 581 died and over 5,000 were injured. This is generally considered the worst industrial accident in United States history.

Heligoland "British Bang" Edit

On 18 April 1947, British engineers attempted to destroy the abandoned German fortifications on the evacuated island of Heligoland in what became known as the "British Bang". The island had been fortified during the war with a submarine base and airfield. [46] [47] Roughly 4000 tons [48] [49] of surplus World War II ammunition were placed in various locations around the island and set off. A significant portion of the fortifications were destroyed, although some survived. According to Willmore, [49] the energy released was 1.3×10 13 J, or about 3.2 kilotons of TNT equivalent. The blast is listed in the Guinness Book of World Records under largest single explosive detonation, although Minor Scale in 1985 was larger (see below).

Ocean Liberty in Brest, France Edit

On 28 July 1947, the Norwegian cargo ship Ocean Liberty exploded in the French port of Brest. The cargo consisted of 3,300 tonnes of ammonium nitrate in addition to paraffin and petrol. The explosion killed 22 people, hundreds were injured, 4,000–5,000 buildings were damaged. [50]

Cádiz Explosion Edit

On 18 August 1947, a naval ammunition warehouse containing mostly mines and torpedoes exploded in Cádiz, in southern Spain, for unknown reasons. The explosion of 200 tons of TNT destroyed a large portion of the city. Officially, the explosion killed 150 people the real death toll is suspected to be higher.

"General Vatutin" cargo ship explosion in Magadan, Russia Edit

On 19 December 1947, the Liberty class cargo ship "General Vatutin" exploded in the Soviet port of Magadan at Nagayeva Bay on the Russian Far East. The ship transported 3,313 tonnes of ammonal and TNT for the mining industry. Another cargo ship "Vyborg", carrying 193 tonnes of chemical substances including detonators and fuse cords, also detonated from the explosion. More than 90 people were killed, more than 500 were injured. The explosion caused a tsunami with broken ice. Port buildings were destroyed and damaged. Magadan city buildings were damaged. [51]

Prüm explosion Edit

On 15 July 1949 in the German town of Prüm, an underground bunker inside the hill of Kalvarienberg and used previously by the German Army to store ammunition, but now filled with French Army munitions, caught fire. After a mostly successful evacuation, the 500 tonnes of ammunition in the bunker exploded and destroyed large parts of the town. 12 people died and 15 were severely injured. [52]

Guayuleras explosion Edit

On 23 September 1955 in the Mexican city of Gómez Palacio, Durango, two trucks loaded with 15 tons of dynamite exploded when they apparently collided with a passenger train, causing many deaths. [53]

Cali explosion, Colombia Edit

On 7 August 1956, seven trucks from the Colombian National Army, carrying more than 40 tons of dynamite, exploded. The explosion killed more than 1,000 people, and left a crater 25 metres (82 ft) deep and 60 metres (200 ft) in diameter. [54] [55]

Ripple Rock, British Columbia, Canada Edit

On 5 April 1958, an underwater mountain at Ripple Rock, British Columbia, Canada was levelled by the explosion of 1,375 tonnes of Nitramex 2H, an ammonium nitrate-based explosive. This was one of the largest non-nuclear planned explosions on record, and the subject of the first CBC live broadcast coast-to-coast.

Operation Blowdown Edit

On 18 July 1963, a test blast of 50 tons of TNT in the Iron Range area of Queensland, Australia, tested the effects of nuclear weapons on tropical rainforest, military targets and ability of troops to transit through the resulting debris field. [56]

CHASE 2, off New Jersey Edit

On 17 September 1964, the offshore disposal of the ship Village, containing 7,348 short tons (6,666 t) of obsolete munitions, caused unexpected detonations five minutes after sinking off New Jersey. The detonations were detected on seismic instruments around the world the incident encouraged intentional detonation of subsequent disposal operations to determine detectability of underwater nuclear testing. [57]

Operation Sailor Hat Edit

A series of tests, Operation Sailor Hat, was performed off Kaho'olawe Island, Hawaii, in 1965, using conventional explosives to simulate the shock effects of nuclear blasts on naval vessels. Each test saw the detonation of 500 short tons (450 t) of high explosives.

CHASE 3 and 4, off New Jersey Edit

On 14 July 1965, Coastal Mariner was loaded with 4,040 short tons (3,670 t) of obsolete munitions containing 512 short tons (464 t) of high explosives. The cargo was detonated at a depth of 1,000 feet (300 m) and created a 600-foot (200 m) water spout, but was not deep enough to be recorded on seismic instruments. On 16 September 1965, Santiago Iglesias was similarly detonated with 8,715 short tons (7,906 t) of obsolete munitions. [57]

Feyzin disaster, near Lyon, France Edit

On 4 January 1966, an LPG spill occurred near Lyon, France and resulted in a cloud of propane vapour which persisted until it was ignited by a bypassing car. Several tanks BLEVE'd, causing the deaths of 18 people, the injury of 81 and extensive damage to the site.

Medeo Dam Edit

On 21 October 1966, a mud flow protection dam near Alma-Ata, Kazakhstan was created by a series of four preliminary explosions of 1,800 tonnes total and a final explosion of 3,600 tonnes of ammonium nitrate-based explosive. On 14 April 1967, the dam was reinforced by an explosion of 3,900 tonnes of ammonium nitrate-based explosive.

CHASE 5, off Puget Sound Edit

On 23 May 1966, Izaac Van Zandt was loaded with 8,000 short tons (7,300 t) of obsolete munitions containing 400 short tons (360 t) of high explosives. The cargo was detonated off Puget Sound at a depth of 4,000 feet (1,200 m). [57]

CHASE 6, off New Jersey Edit

On 28 July 1966, Horace Greeley was loaded with obsolete munitions and detonated off New Jersey at a depth of 4,000 feet (1,200 m). [57]

N1 launch explosion Edit

On 3 July 1969, an N1 rocket in the Soviet Union exploded on the launch pad of Baikonur Cosmodrome, after a turbopump exploded in one of the engines. The entire rocket contained about 680,000 kg (680 t) of kerosene and 1,780,000 kg (1,780 t) of liquid oxygen. [58] Using a standard energy release of 43 MJ/kg of kerosene gives about 29 TJ for the energy of the explosion (about 6.93 kt TNT equivalent). Investigators later determined that up to 85% of the fuel in the rocket did not detonate, meaning that the blast yield was likely no more than 1 kt TNT equivalent. [59] Comparing explosions of initially unmixed fuels is difficult (being part detonation and part deflagration).

Old Reliable Mine Blast Edit

On 9 March 1972, 2,000 tons (4 million pounds) of explosive were detonated inside three levels of tunnels in the Old Reliable Mine near Mammoth, Arizona. [60] The blast was an experimental attempt to break up the ore body so that metals (primarily copper) could be extracted using sulfuric acid in a heap-leach process. The benefits of increased production were short-lived while the costs of managing acid mine drainage due to the sulfide ore body being exposed to oxygen continue to the present day.

Flixborough disaster Edit

On 1 June 1974, a pipe failure at the Nypro chemical plant in Flixborough, England, caused a large release of flammable cyclohexane vapour. This ignited and the resulting fuel-air explosion destroyed the plant, killing 28 people and injuring 36 more. Beyond the plant 1,821 houses and 167 shops and factories had suffered to a greater or lesser degree. [61] Fires burned for 16 days. The explosion occurred at a weekend otherwise the casualties would have been much heavier. This explosion caused a significant strengthening of safety regulations for chemical plants in the United Kingdom.

Iri Station Explosion Edit

On 11 November 1977, a freight train carrying 40 tons of dynamite from Gwangju suddenly exploded at Iri station (present-day Iksan), Jeollabuk-do province, South Korea. The cause of the explosion was accidental ignition by a drunk guard. 59 people lost their lives, and 185 others seriously wounded altogether, over 1,300 people were injured or killed.

Los Alfaques disaster Edit

On 11 July 1978, an overloaded tanker truck carrying 23 tons of liquefied propylene crashed and ruptured in Spain, emitting a white cloud of ground-hugging fumes which spread into a nearby campground and discothèque before reaching an ignition source and exploding. 217 people were killed and 200 more severely burned.

Murdock BLEVEs Edit

In 1983 near Murdock, Illinois, at least two tanker cars of a burning derailed train exploded into BLEVEs one of them was thrown nearly three-quarters mile (1.2 km). [62]

Benton fireworks disaster Edit

On 27 May 1983, an explosion at an illegal fireworks factory near Benton, Tennessee, killed eleven, injured one, and caused damage within a radius of several miles. The blast created a mushroom cloud 600 to 800 feet (180 to 240 m) tall and was heard as far as fifteen miles (24 km) away. [63]

1983 Newark explosion Edit

On 7 January 1983, an explosion of the Texaco oil tank farm was felt for 100–130 miles from Newark, New Jersey claiming 1 life and injuring 22–24 people.

Minor Scale and Misty Picture Edit

Many very large detonations have been carried out in order to simulate the effects of nuclear weapons on vehicles and other military material. [64] The largest publicly known test was conducted by the United States Defense Nuclear Agency (now part of the Defense Threat Reduction Agency) on 27 June 1985 at the White Sands Missile Range in New Mexico. This test, called Minor Scale, used 4,744 short tons (4,304 t) of ANFO, with a yield of about 4 kt (3,900 long tons 4,400 short tons). [65] Misty Picture was another similar test a few years later, slightly smaller at 4,685 short tons or 4,250 t.

PEPCON disaster Edit

On 4 May 1988, about 4,250 short tons (3,860 metric tons) of ammonium perchlorate (NH4ClO4) caught fire and set off explosions near Henderson, Nevada. A 16-inch (41 cm) natural gas pipeline ruptured under the stored ammonium perchlorate and added fuel to the later, larger explosions. There were seven detonations in total, the largest being the last. Two people were killed and hundreds injured. The largest explosion was estimated to be equivalent to 0.25 kilotons of TNT (1.0 TJ). [66] [67] The accident was caught on video by a broadcast engineer servicing a transmitter on Black Mountain, between Henderson and Las Vegas. [68]

Arzamas train disaster Edit

The Arzamas explosion, known also as Arzamas train disaster, occurred on 4 June 1988, when three goods wagons transporting hexogen to Kazakhstan exploded on a railway crossing in Arzamas, Gorky Oblast, Soviet Union. Explosion of 118 tons of hexogen made a 26-metre (85 ft) deep crater, and caused major damage, killing 91 people and injuring 1,500. 151 buildings were destroyed.

Ufa train disaster Edit

On 4 June 1989, a gas explosion destroyed two trains (37 cars and two locomotives) in the Soviet Union. At least 575 people died and more than 800 were injured. [69]

Intelsat 708 Long March 3B launch failure Edit

On 14 February 1996, a Chinese Long March 3B rocket veered severely off course immediately after clearing the launch tower at the Xichang Satellite Launch Center, then crashed into a nearby city and exploded. Following the disaster, foreign media were kept in a bunker for five hours while, some alleged, the Chinese People's Liberation Army attempted to "clean up" the damage. Officials later blamed the failure on an "unexpected gust of wind" although video shows this is not the case. Xinhua News Agency initially reported 6 deaths and 57 injuries. [70] [71]

Enschede fireworks disaster Edit

On 13 May 2000, 177 tonnes of fireworks exploded in Enschede, in the Netherlands, in which 23 people were killed and 947 were injured. [72] The first explosion had the order of 800 kg TNT equivalence the final explosion was in the range of 4,000–5,000 kg TNT. [73]

AZF chemical factory Edit

On 21 September 2001, an explosion occurred at a fertilizer factory in Toulouse, France. The disaster caused 31 deaths, 2,500 seriously wounded, and 8,000 light injuries. The blast (estimated yield of 20–40 tons of TNT, comparable in scale to the military test Operation Blowdown) was heard 80 km away (50 miles) and registered 3.4 on the Richter magnitude scale. It damaged about 30,000 buildings over about two-thirds of the city, for an estimated total cost of about €2 billion. [74]

Ryongchon disaster Edit

A train exploded in North Korea on 22 April 2004. According to official figures, 54 people were killed and 1,249 were injured. [75]

Seest fireworks disaster Edit

On 3 November 2004, about 284 tonnes of fireworks exploded in Kolding, in Denmark. One firefighter was killed, and a mass evacuation of 2,000 people saved many lives. The cost of the damage was estimated at €100 million.

Texas City Refinery explosion Edit

On 23 March 2005, there was a hydrocarbon leak due to incorrect operations during a start up which caused a vapour cloud explosion when ignited by a running vehicle engine. There were 15 deaths and more than 170 injured.

2005 Hertfordshire Oil Storage Terminal fire Edit

On 11 December 2005, there was a series of major explosions at the 60,000,000 imp gal (270,000,000 L) capacity Buncefield oil depot near Hemel Hempstead, Hertfordshire, England. The explosions were heard over 100 mi (160 km) away, as far as the Netherlands and France, and the resulting flames were visible for many miles around the depot. A smoke cloud covered Hemel Hempstead and nearby parts of west Hertfordshire and Buckinghamshire. There were no fatalities, but there were around 43 injuries (2 serious). The British Geological Survey estimated the equivalent yield of the explosion as 29.5 tonnes TNT. [76]

Sea Launch failure Edit

On 30 January 2007, a Sea Launch Zenit-3SL space rocket exploded on takeoff. The explosion consumed the roughly 400,000 kg (400 t) of kerosene and liquid oxygen on board. This rocket was launched from an uncrewed ship in the middle of the Pacific Ocean, so there were no casualties the launch platform was damaged and the NSS-8 satellite was destroyed.

2007 Maputo arms depot explosion Edit

On 22 March 2007, a series of explosions over 2.5 hours rocked the Mozambican capital of Maputo. The incident was blamed on high temperatures. Officials confirmed 93 fatalities and more than 300 injuries. [77] [78]

2008 Gërdec explosions Edit

On Saturday, 15 March 2008, at an ex-military ammunition depot in the village of Gërdec in the Vorë Municipality, Albania (14 kilometers from Tirana, the nation's capital), U.S and Albanian munitions experts were preparing to destroy stockpiles of obsolete ammunition. The main explosion, involving more than 400 tons of propellant in containers, destroyed hundreds of houses within a few kilometers from the depot and broke windows in cars on the Tirana-Durrës highway. A large fire caused a series of smaller but powerful explosions that continued until 2 a.m. on Sunday. The explosions could be heard as far away as the Macedonian capital of Skopje, 170 km (110 mi) away.[1] There were 26 killed, 318 houses were destroyed completely, 200 buildings were seriously damaged, and 188 buildings were less seriously damaged. [79]

2009 Cataño oil refinery fire Edit

On the morning of 23 October 2009, there was a major explosion at the petrol tanks at the Caribbean Petroleum Corporation oil refinery and oil depot in Bayamón, Puerto Rico. [80] The explosion was seen and heard from 50 miles (80 km) away and left a smoke plume with tops as high as 30,000 feet (9 km) It caused a 3.0 earthquake and blew glass out of windows around the city. The resulting fire was extinguished on 25 October.

Ulyanovsk arms depot explosion Edit

On 13 and 23 November 2009, 120 tons of Soviet-era artillery shells blew up in two separate sets of explosions at the 31st Arsenal of the Caspian Sea Flotilla's ammunition depot near Ulyanovsk, killing ten. [81] [82]

Evangelos Florakis Naval Base explosion Edit

Around 5:45 am local time on 11 July 2011, a fire at a munitions dump at Evangelos Florakis Naval Base near Zygi, Cyprus, caused the explosion of 98 cargo containers holding various types of munitions. The naval base was destroyed, as was Cyprus's biggest power plant, the "Vassilikos" power plant 500 m (1,600 ft) away. The explosion also caused 13 deaths and over 60 injuries. Injuries were reported up to 5 km (3.1 mi) away and damaged houses were reported as far as 10 km (6.2 mi) away. [83] [84] Seismometers at the Mediterranean region recorded the explosion as a M3.0 seismic event. [85]

Cosmo Oil Refinery fire Edit

On 11 March 2011, the Tōhoku earthquake caused natural gas containers in the Cosmo Oil Refinery of Ichihara, Chiba Prefecture, Japan to catch fire, destroying storage tanks and injuring six. [86] As it burned, several pressurized liquefied propane gas storage tanks exploded into fireballs. [87] It was extinguished by the Cosmo Oil Company on 21 March 2011. [86]

Donguz Ammunition depot explosion Edit

On 8–9 October 2012, a Russian ammunition depot, at the Donguz test site, containing 4,000 tons of shells exploded 40 kilometres (25 mi) from Orenburg in Central Russia. [ citation needed ]

Texas fertilizer plant explosion Edit

On 17 April 2013, a fire culminating in an explosion shortly before 8 p.m. CDT (00:50 UTC, 18 April) destroyed the West Fertilizer Company plant in West, Texas, United States, located 18 miles (29 km) north of Waco, Texas. [88] [89] The blast killed 15 people, injured over 160, and destroyed over 150 buildings. The United States Geological Survey recorded the explosion as a 2.1-magnitude earthquake, the equivalent of 7.5 – 10 tons of TNT. [90] [91] [92]

Lac-Mégantic rail disaster Edit

On 6 July 2013, a train of 73 tank cars of light crude oil ran away down a slight incline, after being left unattended for the night, when the air brakes failed after the locomotive engines were shut down following a small fire. It derailed twelve kilometres away in Lac-Mégantic, Quebec, Canada, igniting the Bakken light crude oil from 44 DOT-111 oil cars. Approximately 3–4 minutes after the initial blast, there was a second explosion from 12 oil cars. A series of smaller blasts followed into the early morning hours, igniting the oil of a total 73 oil cars. The disaster is known to have killed 42 people five more were missing and presumed dead. [93]

2015 Tianjin explosions Edit

On 12 August 2015, at 23:30, two explosions occurred in the Chinese port Tianjin at a warehouse operated by Ruihai Logistics. The more powerful explosion was estimated at 336 tons TNT equivalent. [94] 173 people were killed, and 8 remain missing. [95]

2016 San Pablito Market fireworks explosion Edit

On 20 December 2016, a fireworks explosion occurred at the San Pablito Market in the city of Tultepec, north of Mexico City. At least 42 people were killed, and dozens injured.

2020 Tarragona IQOXE plant explosion Edit

On 14 January 2020, an ethylene oxide tank exploded at the IQOXE (Chemical Industries of Ethylene Oxide) plant in Tarragona (Spain).

2020 Beirut explosion Edit

On 4 August 2020, a warehouse containing 2,750 tonnes (3,030 short tons) of ammonium nitrate exploded following a fire in the Port of Beirut, Lebanon. The explosion generated a pressure wave felt more than 240 kilometres (150 mi) away. Following early estimates of the yield of the explosion ranging from hundreds of tons of TNT equivalent [96] [97] [98] [99] [100] to 1.1 kilotons, [101] a study by researchers from the Blast and Impact Research Group at the University of Sheffield estimated the energy of the Beirut explosion to be equivalent to 0.5 - 1.2 kt of TNT. [102] At least 200 people were killed, more than 6,500 injured, and about 300,000 made homeless. Much of central Beirut was devastated by the blast with property damage estimated at US$10–15 billion.

The most powerful non-nuclear weapons ever designed are the United States' MOAB (standing for Massive Ordnance Air Blast, also nicknamed Mother Of All Bombs, tested in 2003 and used on April 13, 2017, in Achin District, Afghanistan) and the Russian Father of All Bombs (tested in 2007). The MOAB contains 18,700 lb (8.5 t) of the H6 explosive, which is 1.35 times as powerful as TNT, giving the bomb an approximate yield of 11 t TNT. It would require about 250 MOAB blasts to equal the Halifax explosion (2.9 kt).

Large conventional explosions have been conducted for nuclear testing purposes. Some of the larger ones are listed below. [64]

Event Explosive used Amount of explosive Location Date
Trinity (100-ton test on tower) TNT 100 short tons (91 t) [103] [104] White Sands Proving Grounds 7 May 1945
TNT 100 short tons (91 t) Suffield Experimental Station, Alberta, Canada 3 August 1961
Blowdown TNT 50 short tons (45 t) Lockhart River, Queensland 18 July 1963
Snowball TNT 500 short tons (450 t) Suffield Experimental Station, Alberta, Canada 17 July 1964
Sailor Hat TNT 3 tests × 500 short tons (450 t) Kaho'olawe, Hawaii 1965
Distant Plain Propane or methane 20 short tons (18 t) Suffield Experimental Station, Alberta, Canada 1966–1967 (6 tests)
Prairie Flat TNT 500 short tons (450 t) Defence Research Establishment Suffield, Alberta, Canada 1968
Dial Pack TNT 500 short tons (450 t) Defence Research Establishment Suffield, Alberta, Canada 23 July 1970
Mixed Company 3 TNT 500 short tons (450 t) Colorado 20 November 1972
Dice Throw ANFO 620 short tons (560 t) White Sands Missile Range 6 October 1976
Misers Bluff Phase II ANFO 1 & 6-simultaneous tests × 120 short tons (110 t) Planet Ranch, Arizona Summer 1978
Distant Runner ANFO 2 tests × 120 short tons (110 t) White Sands Missile Range 1981
Mill Race ANFO 620 short tons (560 t) White Sands Missile Range 16 September 1981
Direct Course ANFO 609 short tons (552 t) White Sands Missile Range 26 October 1983
Minor Scale ANFO 4,744 short tons (4,304 t) White Sands Missile Range 27 June 1985
Misty Picture ANFO 4,685 short tons (4,250 t) White Sands Missile Range 14 May 1987
Misers Gold ANFO 2,445 short tons (2,218 t) White Sands Missile Range 1 June 1989
Distant Image ANFO 2,440 short tons (2,210 t) White Sands Missile Range 20 June 1991
Minor Uncle ANFO 2,725 short tons (2,472 t) White Sands Missile Range 10 June 1993
Non Proliferation Experiment ANFO 1,410 short tons (1,280 t) Nevada Test Site 22 September 1993

Other smaller tests include Air Vent I and Flat Top I-III series of 20 tons TNT at Nevada Test Site in 1963–64, Pre Mine Throw and Mine Throw in 1970–1974, Mixed Company 1 & 2 of 20 tons TNT, Middle Gust I-V series of 20 or 100 tons TNT in the early 1970s, Pre Dice Throw and Pre Dice Throw II in 1975, Pre-Direct Course in 1982, SHIST in 1994, and the series Dipole Might in the 1990s and 2000s. Divine Strake was a planned test of 700 tons ANFO at the Nevada Test Site in 2006, but was cancelled.

These yields are approximated by the amount of the explosive material and its properties. They are rough estimates and are not authoritative.


Today in World War II History—April 13, 1944

75 Years Ago—April 13, 1944: Countdown to D-day: RAF and US Ninth Air Force begin bombing campaign against gun emplacements at Normandy and elsewhere on coast to conceal invasion site.

Martial law lifted in US Territory of Hawaii, which had been in place since the attack on Pearl Harbor, 7 December 1941.

Hollywood movie premiere of the documentary Memphis Belle: A Story of a Flying Fortress, directed by William Wyler, about the famous B-17’s 25 th mission.

Longues-sur-Mer gun battery, Longues-sur-Mer, France, September 2017 (Photo: Sarah Sundin)


7 April 1944 - History

Date: April 7, 1944
Mission: Rapid City to Grand Island, Nebraska
Load: 1700 gals of gas, baggage and equipment, wt. 3500 lbs.
Flight Time: 2:40 hours

Date: April 13, 1944
Mission: Grand Island to Bangor, Maine
Flight Time: 9:15 hours
Load: 27,000 gals of gas, baggage and equipment wt. 3500 lbs.

Date: April 18, 1944
Mission: Bangor, Maine (Dow Field) to Goose Bay, Labrador
Load: 2700 gals of gas, baggage and equipment wt. 3500 lbs.
Remarks: Hit Goose Bay 1mile right
Flight Time: 4:40 hours, 2:40 hours on instruments

Date: April 19, 1944
Mission: Goose Bay, Labrador to Meeks Field (Reykjavik), Iceland
Load: 2700 gals of gas, baggage and equipment wt. 3500 lbs.
Remarks: Celestial navigation until one hour past Prince Christian. Missed Prince Christian 1 mile, hit Meeks on the nose.
Time: 11:00 hours, 1 hour on instruments
Altitude: 11,000 feet to 15,000 feet, two hours out of Iceland

Date: April 20, 1944
Mission: Meeks Field to Nuts Corner, Ireland via Stornway, Scotland
Flight Time: 5:30 hours
Load: 1700 gals of gas, baggage and equipment wt. 3500 lbs.
Remarks: Missed destination three miles right. Hit Stornway, Scotland on the nose.

Date: April 22, 1944
Mission: Nuts Corner, Ireland to Nuthampstead, England
Flight Time: 3:00 hours


Battle of Okinawa - WW2 Timeline (April 1st - June 22nd, 1945)

The island of Okinawa represented a grand strategic map marker for both the Allies and the Japanese. She was the last stop before the Japanese mainland and all sides were prepared for the slugfest to follow. In all their suicidal and fanatical glory, the Japanese valiantly defended the island against the countless American assaults and casualties mounted on both sides. In the end, overwhelming material, substantial firepower and true grit triumphed as the island fell into the ultimate control of the Allies.

The Allies drew up what was, to date, the largest amphibious assault, this encompassing both elements of the US Marines and US Army along with US Navy support by both sea and air. Some 550,000 people are involved and of these, 180,000 were soldiers - many experienced from the island-hopping campaigns prior. The landings were softened to an extent by previous artillery shelling and coordinated air strikes across the island so the initial landings were greeted without much issue - this was, however, more due to the 85,000 Japanese defenders having concentrated their positions inland. On one side was American Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner and on the other, Japanese Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushjima.

The grand battleship, IJN Yamato - the largest and most powerful battleship ever built, was sent to the battle in what would turn out to be nothing more than a suicidal gesture. She sailed with a small contingent of warships and no air cover whatsoever - Japanese air power having been substantially reduced by this point in the war. The vessel was first spotted by American submarines operating in the area and further pinpointed by US Navy reconnaissance aircraft on April 7th. Some 380 US Navy warplanes are sent aloft to stop her.

With no air support of her own, the Japanese sailors put up a net of anti-aircraft fire that only serves a limited purpose. US Navy airmen find pickings to be relatively easy once the AA guns are managed. The Yamato is repeatedly hit where she sits until her magazine stores catch fire and explode. Her internal flooding forces her to roll over in all her smoking glory until she is officially lost to the sea with most of her crew. Her grave is marked some 200 miles off the Okinawa shore, well short of her mission target zone.

The Kamikaze - suicidal Japanese airmen on a one way trip - are launched against US Navy vessels off Okinawa, netting some 34 total ships by the time the damage is counted. While a tremendous psychological tool, the actions proved fruitless overall and cost the lives of both valuable pilots and machines. Many were shot down by the umbrella of American AA fire supporting each naval vessel and plunged harmlessly into the sea.

Ferocious fighting continued inland on Okinawa as the Japanese fought for every square inch of rock. Casualties mounted for both sides though the Americans maintained the "healthier" advantage for lack of a better term. The weather across the island worsened for a time and offensives were stalled. During this lull, the Japanese forces had retreated further while still repelling the American assaults. A final defensive position was erected at the southern tip of the island, each Japanese soldier knowing he will be killed or captured from this moment on.

By June 17th, the Japanese defenders had been divided into three major assault groups by the American progress. This yielded singularity in actions by each remaining defensive force and no coordinated actions could take place. Lieutenant General Buckner signaled for a final surrender of Lieutenant General Ushjima and his men before he is unexpectedly killed by a Japanese shell while inspecting his 8th Marine. However, honor prevails over surrender and Ushjima and his staff commit ritual suicide after relaying the results of the battle to Tokyo headquarters. Though bested by his American counterpart, Ushjima ironically survives him by a full week.

The Battle of Okinawa is officially over. With it came the victory that the Allies would need in the final conquest of Japan proper - a staging area within striking distance of the Japanese mainland. The cost is high but the victory is permanent and the beginning of the end for the Japanese war machine is now.

The stage was set for the end of the Japanese Empire.


There are a total of (27) Battle of Okinawa - WW2 Timeline (April 1st - June 22nd, 1945) events in the Second World War timeline database. Entries are listed below by date-of-occurrence ascending (first-to-last). Other leading and trailing events may also be included for perspective.

In preparation for the amphibious assault landings on the island of Okinawa, US Naval elements begin bombardment of shoreline positions.

The US 77th Infantry Division lands at the Kerama Islands to secure a staging post for the eventual invasion of Okinawa.

The US Navy lobs some 30,000 explosive shells on the Okinawa coastline by this time, ending a week of bombardment.

Further landings of US forces on the Kerama Islands, complete its capture for the Allies.

Two US Army and USMC divisions land along the southwest coast of Okinawa near Hagushi, meeting little resistance. The US 10th Army is commanded by Lieutenant General Simon Bolivar Buckner. Some 550,000 personnel and 180,000 soldiers take part in the fray.

Allied forces find and locate the Japanese defenders along the southern portion of Okinawa. Heavy defenses are noted.

As American forces move further inland, the battle for Okinawa intensifies. Pockets of dug-in Japanese defenders become evermore concentrated the more inland the Allied forces go.

American forces are now amassed as two separate assault fronts. To the north are the 1st and 6th Marine divisions. To the mountainous south are the 7th and 96th Infantry divisions.

The deadly kamikaze air attack is unleashed on American Naval vessels in the Pacific. These aircraft appear as coordinated airstrikes and prove equally deadly to both sides. USN vessels off the coast of Okinawa itself are targeted. Some 34 US Navy ships fall victim.

The IJN Yamato, having already been spotted by an American submarine, makes its way to the fighting at Okinawa. The crew understand that this is a suicide mission at this point in the war.

The IJN Yamato, Japan's pride and joy and the largest battleship ever built, sails from the Inland Sea on a suicide mission at Okinawa. She is escorted by the light cruiser Yahagi and some eight destroyers on her final voyage.

The American 27th Infantry Division lands at Tsugen. The island is just to the east of Okinawa proper.

In the early morning hours, US Navy reconnaissance aircraft spot the IJN Yamato and relay her position.

Wednesday, April 11th, 1945

The conquest of Tsugen is completed by the 27th Infantry Division.

Task Force 38 launches some 380 aircraft against IJN Yamato.

US Marines reach Hedo Point in the north of Okinawa.

With no air cover, the IJN Yamato is blasted to pieces by the American Navy warplanes. Her magazine stores explode in a fantastic display as she goes up in smoke. Most of her crew is lost with the ship in the afternoon hours.

A five-day offensive is undertaken involving the American 77th Infantry Division and the island of Ie Shima. Ie Shima represents the tip of the Motobu Peninsula. Motobu is a defensive Japanese stronghold located to the west of Okinawa proper.

Japanese defenders are pushed back towards Naha by American forces. The Japanese defensive lines are reset as territory is lost. The Americans report 1,000 casualties in their assaults.

Motobu Peninsula falls to the Americans as the Japanese defenders are either killed or captured.

The offensive to take Ie Shima is completed.

The Japanese enact a major offensive in the south of Okinawa. A coast-to-coast defensive front is established from Naha to Yonabaru. Regardless, the line is targeted by prolonged American firepower and infantry.

Naha is officially captured by American forces. The Orouku Peninsula to the south is now within reach.

By this time, the Japanese defenders have been seperated into three major fighting groups. The more raw recruits find it somewhat easy to surrender than fight to the death.

The fighting on Okinawa comes to a close as American forces overwhelm the islands determined Japanese defenders. Those that are not taken prisoner or die in the fighting, subject themselves to ritual suicides.

Understanding that defeat is iminent, Japanese Lieutenant General Mitsuru Ushjima commits ritual suicide with his staff after reporting the loss of Okinawa to his superiors.

The Battle of Okinawa officially draws to a close and now represents the all-important staging area for the Allied invasion of the Japanese mainland.


Michigan History & Cultural Issues

Much has been discussed about President Barack Obama’s removal of General Motors CEO Rick Wagner as if this has not been done before. My first thought upon hearing of Wagner’s removal was of a famous photo I found while helping author Brian Bohnett research the background for his book, Them Was the Days. Removed from Office In the 1944 photo, Montgomery Ward Chairman Sewell Avery was sitting in his wood executive’s chair on a street in downtown Chicago while being held by two members of what I believe to be the Illinois National Guard complete with uniforms and helmets. Avery was removed because of his opposition to FDR’s New Deal program. The dilemma in 1944 was best expressed in a Time magazine article titled: Seizure. “But the over whelming issue at stake was whether or not the President had authority to take over an industry that seemed to the U.S. public patently civilian. How far does Federal power extend? Attorney General Biddle tried manfully to class Montgomery Ward as a war industry, pointing out that one of its subsidiaries manufactures airplane parts. But he hastily sought refuge under the Constitution's broad mandate to the President ‘to take care that the laws be faithfully executed.’" Seizure, Time magazine, Monday, May 8, 1944. Michigan Military Academy My interest in Avery is of a local nature. Avery was born in Saginaw, Michigan and attended the Michigan Military Academy (MMA) in Orchard Lake. While at the MMA Avery's bio reads: Sergeant, Company “A” 1890 Captain, Company “A” 1892 Senior Class Prophet 1892 Football (Right Half) 1892 Prize Contest in Declamation May 27, 1892 (2nd Prize: Chariot Race, from “Ben Hur”) MMA Minstrels Performance at Pontiac Opera House May 7, 1892 2nd Sergeant, "Crack" Company, 1891 and a member of the 1892 graduating class. Nine of the original MMA buildings are still in use by The Orchard Lake Schools. The MMA Academy Building houses the administrative offices and some classrooms of the Orchard Lake St. Mary’s Preparatory School. FDR Confiscates Avery’s Yacht The story does not begin in the streets of Chicago. Two years earlier, FDR, incensed by Avery’s refusal to comply with New Deal legislation, confiscated Avery’s yacht Lenore (view photos & source material). The vessel was of 94 tons displacement, length 92 feet, beam 16 feet and draft of 5 feet. The boat was built in 1931 for Sewell Avery, then Chairman of Montgomery Ward by the Defoe Boat Works of Bay City, Michigan. The boat was originally christened the Lenore after Lenore Avery, Sewell's second daughter who died at age 4. The yacht Lenore was originally used to cruise the waters of Lake Michigan near Avery's private estate at Iron Mountain. Serious disagreements between Montgomery Ward and the goverment over Roosevelt's NRA wage and price provisions led to the seizure of the boat by the goverment in 1942. Renamed the Lenore II, she was used as a training ship for submarine crews in Portsmouth New Hampshire and later as an escort for the Presidential Yacht Williamsburg. The Lenore frequently carried the secret service agents who accompanied the President while he was aboard the 255 foot Williamsburg. In 1953, President Eisenhower retired the splendid but costly Williamsburg from active service and authorized the refurnishing and overhauling of Lenora II at a cost of $200,000 and rechristened Barbara Ann in honor of his granddaughter. The Barbara Ann was used for occasional cruises and in the summers of 1957 and 1958 she sailed to Newport, Rhode Island where she conveyed the president to and from his golfing excursions. With the inauguration of President John F. Kennedy, the yacht was refitted and on March 7, 1961 was renamed the Honey Fitz, honoring JFK's maternal grandfather (Former Mayor of Boston, and member of the House of Representatives, John Francis Fitzgerald. President Johnson did not rename the Honey Fitz and prefered it to the larger Sequoia which was still at the Washington Naval Yard. President Nixion renamed the Honey Fitz to Tricia after his daughter and had the vessel auctioned off in December 1971 after a brief tour of duty providing cruises for hospitalized Vietnam veterans. The boat was purchased by Joe Keating who named it the Presidents. The yacht was completly restored and refitted as it was during Kennedys term and was used for charters based in New York city. She was sold to unknown buyers at the Kennedy Memorabilia Auctions in 1998, for $5,942,500. When the boat left overhaul the painted transom was once again embellished with Honey Fitz in gold leaf. About the GWBHS The Greater West Bloomfield Historical Society (GWBHS) is a non-profit, tax-exempt organization. It serves the Michigan communities of Keego Harbor, Orchard Lake, Sylvan Lake and West Bloomfield. The Society's goal is to provide a vital museum to familiarize residents with our area's history. For more information, please visit www.gwbhs.com
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Comments

Good info Buzz, I remember seeing that article before too. Now, with Oboma and the Rick Wagner removal, we see history repeating itself. I hope not too often.

context: "Montgomery Ward Chairman Sewell Avery refused to comply with the terms of three different collective bargaining agreements with the United Retail, Wholesale and Department Store Union hammered out between 1943 and 1944. In April 1944, after Sewell refused a second board order, Roosevelt called out the Army National Guard to seize the company's main plant in Chicago."

Sewell was over thrown because he would not bow to the powerful Unions, Montgomery Ward did not deal with war materials and was not bound by the War Labor Dispute Acts, and the siezure was completely unconstitutional. And thus within the year the illinois Supreme Court overrulled FDR's Union take over.

When war broke out, the first thing the Union did was go on strike, no care for anything but their own pockets. Perhaps a set up to aid FDR in passing the War labor Dispute Acts and give himself power to aid the Union in Unionizing the entire country. He should have been hung for pushing such agendas at anytime, let alone during a war. The left has only one goal at any given time, to advance their own personal agenda, and this was no different, and Sewell Avery stood up to their unconstitutional coup, and was seized unconstitutionally by the Federal Government under the arrogant FDR. The inventory of Montgomery Ward was completely of NON_WAR articles.

spoken like a true corporate capitalist. tax payer bailouts for the rich and powerful after squandering and robbing their own coffers. screw the worker trying to support a family. nothing new.

Spoken like a true mass murdering socialist. Theft and injustice as public policy. Screw the worker trying to get a job at union wages, screw the property owner who tries to supply those workers, screw civil society, and screw peace.


Watch the video: A day in Germany 1945 during World War II in color 60fps, Remastered wadded sound